Advertisement

Towards the Liberal Peace

  • Oliver P. Richmond
Part of the Rethinking Peace and Conflict Studies book series (RCS)

Abstract

‘They make a desert and call it peace’ ‘For every state war is incessant and lifelong against every other state… For what most men call ‘peace’, this is really only a name — in truth, all states by their very nature are always engaged in an informal war against all other states’2 ‘the nature of War consisteth not in actual fighting: but in the known predisposition thereto, during all the time there is no assurance to the contrary. All other time is Peace.’3

Keywords

Civil Society Ideal Form Security Council International Order Peace Movement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 3.
    Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Oxford: OUP, 1998 [1651], p. 186.Google Scholar
  2. 5.
    Chris Brown, Sovereignty, Rights and Justice: International Political Theory Today, Cambridge: Polity, 2002, p. 15.Google Scholar
  3. 6.
    Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Oxford: OUP, 1998 (1651): Augustine, City of God, London: Penguin, 1964.Google Scholar
  4. 7.
    Michael Howard, The Invention of Peace and the Re-Invention of War, London: Profile, 2002, p. 9.Google Scholar
  5. 9.
    G.W.F. Hegel, Philosophy ofRight, London: Prometheus, 1996.Google Scholar
  6. 13.
    Patrick Riley (ed.) ‘On the Works of the Abbe de St Pierre,’ in Leibniz: Political Writings, Cambridge; CUP, 1988, pp. 121–45.Google Scholar
  7. 15.
    William Penn, ‘An Essay towards the Present and Future Peace of Europe’, The Peace of Europe, London: Everyman, 1993 [1693], pp. 5–22.Google Scholar
  8. 16.
    Ibid., pp. 17–22. Two other benefits Penn envisaged would be that peace would prevent Ottoman expansion and allow princes to marry more freely!Google Scholar
  9. 17.
    Chris Brown, op. cit., p. 42.Google Scholar
  10. 18.
    Ibid., p. 44.Google Scholar
  11. 20.
    Robert Kagan, Paradise and Power, London: Atlantic Books, 2003, p. 58.Google Scholar
  12. 22.
    John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, Oxford: OUP, 1998 (1859), esp. Chapter 1.Google Scholar
  13. 29.
    Chris Brown, op. cit., p. 25: See also E. de Vattel, ‘Just War: In a doubtful cause’, The Law of Nations, Liberty, 1975, § 38.Google Scholar
  14. 30.
    David Barash, ‘Human Rights’ in David Barash, Approaches to Peace, OUP, 2000, p. 149–151.Google Scholar
  15. 31.
    Ibid., p. 155.Google Scholar
  16. 32.
    Christine Bell, ‘Human Rights and Minority Protection’, in John Darby and Roger MacGinty, Contemporary Peacemaking, London: Palgrave, 2003, p. 161.Google Scholar
  17. 37.
    Henry Shue, Basic Rights, Subsistence, Affluence and US Foreign Policy, Princeton: PUP, 1980. See also Chris Brown, op. cit., p. 122.Google Scholar
  18. 40.
    Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, ‘Righting Wrongs’ in Nicolas Owen (ed.), Human Rights, Human Wrongs, Oxford: OUP, 2002, p. 226.Google Scholar
  19. 41.
    GWF Hegel, Philosophy of Right, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1945. Chris Brown, op. cit., p. 49.Google Scholar
  20. 44.
    Martin Ceadal, ThinkingAboutPeace and War, Oxford: OUP, 1987, p. 4.Google Scholar
  21. 45.
    Summary of the Commonwealth of Britain. For more on this see W.H. Sherman, John Dee: the politics of history in the English renaissance, Amherst: Massachussetts UP, 1995.Google Scholar
  22. 46.
    Ian Cameron, LostParadise, London: Century, 1989, p. 109.Google Scholar
  23. 48.
    Martin Shaw, ‘Post Imperial and Quasi Imperial’, Millennium, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2002, p. 330.Google Scholar
  24. 49.
    See Robert Jackson, Quasi-States: Sovereignty, International Relations and the Third World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  25. 50.
    David P. Barash, Approaches to Peace, Oxford: OUP, 2000, p. 228.Google Scholar
  26. 51.
    For more detail on these movements, see Nigel Young, Peace Movements in History’, in S. Mendlovitz and R.B.J. Walker (eds), Towards a Just World Peace, London: Butterworths, 1987.Google Scholar
  27. 57.
    For a fascinating account of Edmund Morel’s campaign against slave labour in the Congo see Adam Hochschild, King Leopolds Ghost, London: Macmillan, 1999.Google Scholar
  28. 58.
    David Rieff, A Bed for the Night, London: Vintage, 2002, p. 58.Google Scholar
  29. 59.
    Ibid., p. 59.Google Scholar
  30. 64.
    For more on these developments, see Elise Boulding, Cultures of Peace, Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  31. 67.
    Andrew Williams, Failed Imagination: New World Orders of the Twentieth Century, Manchester: MUP, 1998, pp. 23–26.Google Scholar
  32. 69.
    Charles Seymour, The Intimate Papers of Colonel House, Vol. 3, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1928, p. 51, cited in David Fromkin, A Peace to End All Peace, London: Pheonix Press, 1989, p. 253.Google Scholar
  33. 70.
    Arthur S. Link et al. (ed.), The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Vol. 41, January 24—April 6, 1917, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983, p. 525.Google Scholar
  34. 71.
    Woodrow Wilson, Address to the Senate, 12 January 1917, in Arthur S. Link et al. (ed.), The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Vol. 40, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983, p. 536–7.Google Scholar
  35. 72.
    Woodrow Wilson, Address to the Senate, 22 January 1917, in Arthur S. Link et al., op. cit., Vol. 40, p. 539.Google Scholar
  36. 74.
    For more on this from first hand see Harold Nicolson, Peacemaking 1919, London: Constable, 1945.Google Scholar
  37. 75.
    Charles Seymour, The Intimate Papers of Colonel House, Vol. 3, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1928, pp. 323–339.Google Scholar
  38. 76.
    Ronald Steel, Walter Lippmann and the American Century, Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1980, p. 136.Google Scholar
  39. 77.
    David Fromkin, A Peace to End all Peace, London: Pheonix, 1989, pp. 260–261.Google Scholar
  40. 79.
    Gilbert Murray, ‘Self-Determination of Nationalities’, Journal of the British Institute oflnternationalAffairs 1:1 (January 1922), p. 6.Google Scholar
  41. 80.
    Ibid., p. 8.Google Scholar
  42. 81.
    Ibid., p. 11.Google Scholar
  43. 82.
    Margaret Macmillan, The Peacemakers, London: John Murray, 2003, pp. 9–14.Google Scholar
  44. 83.
    Ian Clark, The Post-Cold War Order, Oxford: OUP, 2001, p. 248.Google Scholar
  45. 86.
    John Maynard Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace, London: Macmillan, 1920, esp. Chapters V-VII.Google Scholar
  46. 87.
    Ibid., p. 201.Google Scholar
  47. 88.
    Ibid., p. 243.Google Scholar
  48. 89.
    Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen, The West, Civil Society, and the Construction of Peace, London: Palgrave, 2003, p. 65.Google Scholar
  49. 90.
    Harold Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919, Boston and New York: Houghton and Mifflin, 1933, pp. 3–4.Google Scholar
  50. 91.
    Ibid., p. 371.Google Scholar
  51. 92.
    E.H. Carr, The Twenty Years Crisis, London: Macmillan, 1939.Google Scholar
  52. 95.
    See Quincy Wright, The Study of War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964, esp. p. xiv.Google Scholar
  53. 96.
    Margaret Mead, Warfare is Only an Invention-Not a Biological Necessity (1940) in Douglas Hunt (ed.), The Dolphin Reader, (2nd ed.), Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990, pp. 415–421.Google Scholar
  54. 102.
    David Rieff, A Bed for the Night, London: Vintage, 2002, pp. 32–383.Google Scholar
  55. 107.
    Paul Taylor, ‘Developing the Role of ECOSOC’ in Paul Taylor and A.J.R. Groom (eds), The UN at the Millennium, London: Continuum, 2000, p. 122.Google Scholar
  56. 108.
    Ibid., p. 122.Google Scholar
  57. 109.
    Ibid., p. 122.Google Scholar
  58. 110.
    Ibid., p. 132.Google Scholar
  59. 113.
    Roosevelt to Morris L. Ernst, 8 March 1943, in F.D.R., His Personal Letters, 1928–1945, p. 1407, cited in Ibid., p. 101.Google Scholar
  60. 114.
    Ibid., p. 203.Google Scholar
  61. 116.
    See Peter Singer, ‘How Can We Prevent Crimes Against Humanity’ in Nicolas Owen (ed.), Human Rights, Human Wrongs, Oxford: OUP, 2002, p. 100.Google Scholar
  62. 117.
    See for example, David Mitrany, The Functional Theory of Politics, London: Martin Robertson, 1975, p. xi. Here Mitrany reflects upon the working peace system without defining what it was to achieve in terms of peace. However, it is clear that he has a somewhat broader notion of the concept than was generally accepted in the policy world at the time.Google Scholar
  63. 118.
    David Mitrany, ‘The Progress of International Government (1932)’, op. cit., p. 90.Google Scholar
  64. 119.
    Ibid., p. 121.Google Scholar
  65. 120.
    Ibid., p. 174.Google Scholar
  66. 121.
    Ibid., p. 180.Google Scholar
  67. 128.
    John Locke, Two Treatises on Civil Government (1690) Everyman, 1953.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Oliver P. Richmond 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oliver P. Richmond
    • 1
  1. 1.School of International RelationsUniversity of St. AndrewsUK

Personalised recommendations