• Oliver P. Richmond
Part of the Rethinking Peace and Conflict Studies book series (RCS)


‘Peace may or may not be a ‘modern invention’ but it is certainly a far more complex affair than war.’1 ‘…The savage wars of peace…’2 ‘War is peace.’3


United Nations Ideal Form Global Governance Human Security Sovereign State 
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  1. 1.
    Michael Howard, The Invention of Peace and War, London: Profile Books, 2000, pp. 1–2. Here Howard is paraphrasing a famous quotation on the flyleaf of his book by Sir Henry Maine, International Law, London, 1888, p. 8. ‘War appears to be as old as mankind but peace is a modern invention.’ If one looks at the anthropological literature it appears that debates about peace are just as old as those about war. For example Kelly argues that where there is war, societies also have well developed strategies for peace-making. See Raymond C. Kelly, Warless Societies and the Origin of War, University of Michigan Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rudyard Kipling, ‘The White Man’s Burden.’ McClures Magazine, Vol. 12, February 1899.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    George Orwell, 1984, London: Signet, 1969, p. 164. This was the party slogan.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    ‘The Allegory of the Cave’, The Republic of Plato, Translated by Francis MacDonald Cornford. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1941.Google Scholar
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    Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1999.Google Scholar
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    M. Sollenburg and P. Wallensteen, Armed Conflict 1989–2000, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 4, No. 38, 2001, pp. 629–644.Google Scholar
  7. 13.
    Raymond Aron, Peace and War: A Theory oflnternational Relations, London: Transaction, 2003 [1966], p. 151.Google Scholar
  8. 14.
    Saint Augustine, City of God, XIX, 13, 1, London: Penguin Classics, 1991.Google Scholar
  9. 17.
    Edward N. Luttwak, Strategy: The Logic of War and Peace, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard, 1987, p. xi.Google Scholar
  10. 18.
    Ibid., p. 57.Google Scholar
  11. 19.
    Ibid., p. 59.Google Scholar
  12. 20.
    David Barash, Approaches to Peace, Oxford: OUP, 2000, p. 63.Google Scholar
  13. 21.
    Hugh Miall, What do peace studies contribute distinctively to the study of peace?, Paper prepared for the 18th International Peace Research Association Conference, Tampere, Finland, August 2000, p. 2.Google Scholar
  14. 22.
    See Anatol Rapoport, Peace: An Idea Whose Time Has Come, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992.Google Scholar
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    Hedley Bull, The Anarchical Society, New York: Columbia University Press, 1977: Hedley Bull and A. Watson, The Expansion of International Society, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  16. 24.
    Immanuel Kant, Perpetual Peace, London: Allen and Unwin, 1917.Google Scholar
  17. 25.
    See Edward W. Said, Orientalism, London: Routledge, 1978, esp. Introduction.Google Scholar
  18. 26.
    Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread ofNationalism, New York, NY: Verso, 1983.Google Scholar
  19. 27.
    For an elaboration of these ‘generations’ see Oliver P. Richmond, Maintaining Order, Making Peace, London: Palgrave, 2002.Google Scholar
  20. 28.
    Michel Foucault, Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977 (New York: Pantheon), 1980, p. 30: Michel Foucault, The Archaeology ofKnowledge, London: Tavistock Publications Ltd., 1972, p. 205.Google Scholar
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    Roland Bleiker, Popular Dissent, Human Agency, and Global Politics, Cambridge: CUP, 2000, esp. introduction.Google Scholar
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    Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell-Smith (eds), Selections from the Prison Notebooks ofAntonio Gramsci, Lawrence & Wishart, p. 56–59.Google Scholar
  23. 33.
    A.C.F. Beales, The History ofPeace: A Short Account of the Organised Movements for International Peace, London: Bell and Sons, 1931, p. v.Google Scholar
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    Ibid., p. v.Google Scholar
  25. 35.
    Ibid., p. 334.Google Scholar
  26. 36.
    See Quincy Wright, The Study of War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964, esp. p. xiv and p. 266.Google Scholar
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  28. 38.
    Johann Galtung, Essays in Peace Research, Copenhagen: Christian Ejlers, 1975, p. 29.Google Scholar
  29. 39.
    For the latest version of his argument see, Johan Galtung, Peace By Peaceful Means Peace And Conflict, DevelopmentAnd Civilization, London, Sage, 1996, p. viii. See also Roland Paris, op. cit., p. 58.Google Scholar
  30. 40.
    E.H. Carr, The Twenty YearsCrisis, London: Macmillan, 1939, p. 10.Google Scholar
  31. 42.
    For more on these conceptualisations see, Martin Ceadal, Thinking about Peace and War, Oxford: OUP, 1987, pp. 4–5.Google Scholar
  32. 43.
    Ian Clark, The Post-Cold War Order, Oxford: OUP, 2001: G. John Ikenberry, After Victory, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001, pp. 216–241Google Scholar
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    G. John Ikenberry, After Victory, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001, p. xiii.Google Scholar
  34. 46.
    Mark Duffield, Global Governance and the New Wars, London: Zed Books, 2001.Google Scholar
  35. 47.
    Ibid., p. 11.Google Scholar
  36. 49.
    See Hedley Bull, The Anarchical Society, London: Macmillan, 1977.Google Scholar
  37. 50.
    For more on this see Tzetvan Todorov, ‘Right to Intervene or Duty to Assist’, in Nicolas Owen (ed.), Human Rights, Human Wrongs, Oxford: OUP, 2002, p. 30.Google Scholar
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    For his elucidation of this approach see, Kofi Annan, Prevention of Armed Conflict, S/2001/574, 7th June 2001.Google Scholar
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    High Level panel Report,, 2004: International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, ‘The Responsibility to Protect’, Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 2001.Google Scholar
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    See Chris Brown, ‘Selective Intervention: A Defence of Inconsistency’, Presentation at the University of St. Andrews, 11 November 2002.Google Scholar
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  43. 66.
    Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Vol. 1, London: Penguin, 1990 (1976).Google Scholar
  44. 67.
    For a critique, see Stanley Hoffman, World Disorders, Roma and Littlefield: Lanham, Md., 1998, p. 61.Google Scholar
  45. 68.
    Robert Cox, ‘Postscript 1985’, in Robert Keohane (ed.), Neorealism and its Critics, Columbia UP, 1986, p. 242.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Oliver P. Richmond 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oliver P. Richmond
    • 1
  1. 1.School of International RelationsUniversity of St. AndrewsUK

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