Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War
The Russian revolution (see Map 31) was not followed by a global workers’ revolution. Instead, the Bolsheviks consolidated their power base inside Soviet Russia (the Soviet Union in 1922). ‘White’ anti-communist armies led by former Tsarist generals, and ‘Green’ autonomous local peasant militias, opposed the Bolsheviks (or ‘Reds’) in what became the Russian civil war (1917–1921/22), in which more Russians (including civilians) died than in the First World War. The battle for Russia’s future drew in allied military forces in support of the Whites. The capitalist west opposed both the revolutionary ideology of the Bolsheviks and their decision to sue for peace at Brest-Litovsk (see Map 41), a decision that would allow Germany to move troops from Russia to the western front. Direct allied intervention in the Russian civil war came in six theatres of operation.