The Eastern Peace Settlements
In Austria-Hungary from late 1917, there were food riots and strikes, accompanied by mutinies in the Austro-Hungarian navy in February 1918. Notwithstanding the fact that Austria-Hungary felt short-changed by the treaties of Brest-Litovsk (3 March 1918) (see Map 41) and Bucharest (7 May 1918), her deteriorating internal situation meant that, in May 1918, she accepted German economic and military control of her affairs. After the defeat of her last major offensive against Italy in June 1918, Austria-Hungary’s army decayed. On 27 October 1918, Italian forces along the Piave attacked (Battle of Vittorio Veneto) and the Austro-Hungarian army collapsed. With revolution threatening on the home front, Austria-Hungary began talks for an armistice on 1 November and agreed an armistice for 3/4 November. The result was the treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye with Austria (10 September 1919) and Trianon with Hungary (4 June 1920). From the ruins of Austria-Hungary, there emerged an expanded Rumania and the new states of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Yugoslavia.