A significant feature of ‘success’ defining the five featured cities is a reversal in urban population loss. The image of these cities has been altered by a rise of materialism combined with local authority placepromotion and a shift toward the public display of business and social ‘networking’ (Pacione 2001: 7). In London, for instance, the rapid proliferation of a ‘cappuccino culture’ was such that Mayor Ken Livingstone established a special squad to stop the encroachment of city pavements from bar tables and chairs (Burdett 2000: 68). Viewed this way it is tempting to explain the increased symbolic importance of these cities in terms of gentrification; by the replacement of working class by middle class residents and growth in city-friendly sectors of the economy such as finance, new media, culture and tourism (Graham and Guy 2002: 370—1). Indeed, for two decades social scientists have engaged in heated debates concerning the changing fortunes of selected inner city neighbourhoods (for a good overview of this see Lees 1994; 2000).
KeywordsMarket Area Creative Industry City Limit Economic Sphere Business Travel
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