Carrying out Your Own Research Project in LLE

  • Geoff. Hall
Part of the Research and Practice in Applied Linguistics book series (RPAL)


This chapter aims to help readers design and implement their own research project in LLE (literature in language education). The basic orientation assumed is that of Action Research (AR), as outlined at the beginning of Part 3. A teacher-researcher, in the AR perspective, wishes to understand better in order to transform an existing, less than satisfactory situation, in collaboration with other participants, and will then reflect on the effects of the transformation in order to go on improving practices in the interests of all participants. Traditionally, it was said that qualitative research was an orientation, essentially unteachable, learned by experience and apprenticeship only. An advisor, said to have been consulted by a doctoral student about to study native American society somewhere in California, is supposed to have produced the advice at the head of this chapter! Of course there is no substitute for experience, but this is a reason to begin observing, thinking and writing, not to feel disabled and intimidated.


Time Allocation Language Education Literature Class Literary Text Anticipate Outcome 
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Further reading

  1. It is difficult to recommend a specific text here. This book is the first to address specifically issues of language, literature and education, with special reference to second and foreign language education. I hope it will prompt more work in an under-researched area and in due course a better guide! In the meantime, it can be read in conjunction with some more general guides to research methods and approaches. You could usefully begin with:Google Scholar
  2. Richards (2003: Ch. 5, ‘Planning a Project’; note also Richards on Interviewing (Ch. 2), Observation (Ch. 3) and Analysis (Ch. 6).Google Scholar
  3. Brown and Rodgers (2002) is the most useful single introduction I have seen for beginning second language researchers. To follow up ideas in this book, look in particular at the more qualitative Part One.Google Scholar

General guides to research

  1. Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2000) is a basic book in educational research, including action research, case studies, questionnaires, observation, interviews.Google Scholar
  2. Nunan (1992) A useful basic introduction to second language research. Ethnography, case study, classroom observation and research, introspective methods and more.Google Scholar
  3. Johnson (1992) An Experienced author, gives examples, North American orientation, and educational rather than second language acquisition (case study, survey research, ethnographic research, verbal reports (protocols)).Google Scholar
  4. Faerch and Kasper (1987): still the best introduction to ‘Introspection in second language research’.Google Scholar
  5. Miles and Huberman (1994): stimulating writing on qualitative analysis.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Geoff Hall 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geoff. Hall
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Applied Language StudiesUniversity of Wales SwanseaUK

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