Research Methods for LLE, with Examples

  • Geoff. Hall
Part of the Research and Practice in Applied Linguistics book series (RPAL)


This chapter outlines features, and the relative strengths and weaknesses of, the research methods used to study literature in language education, using example studies. Ethnographic and qualitative studies of literature in language education are advocated because of the relative neglect to date of student perspectives on LLE. This chapter therefore proceeds broadly from the more controlled and experimental to more qualitative, ‘naturalistic’ and action research-oriented methods, which are more likely to engage with and be more practical for teachers who have access to relevant situations.


Language Acquisition Language Education Case Study Research Literary Text Comic Book 
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Further reading

Survey research

  1. Brown and Rodgers (2002) is a brief but intelligent introduction.Google Scholar
  2. Robson (1993) is a very stimulating full-length book study, though not particularly concerned with any one field such as language and education.Google Scholar
  3. Brown (2001) and Baker (1997) offer a second language acquisition focus for survey research design and procedures.Google Scholar


  1. Dörnyei (2003) is a sensible, readable and fully illustrated recent discussion of questionnaire research directed at second language researchers.Google Scholar


  1. Ericsson and Simon (1993) is the key publication.Google Scholar
  2. Pressley and Afflerbach (1995) is a sophisticated and stimulating discussion of protocol study of reading.Google Scholar
  3. Faerch and Kasper (1987) remains the key work for second language protocol research; see also Cohen (1996).Google Scholar

Case study

  1. TESOL Qualitative research guidelines include guidelines on case study research. TESOL Quarterly 29(3) (1995), pp. 163–6.Google Scholar
  2. Yin (1994), Bassey (1999) and Gomm et al. (2000) are all commented on by Richards (2003). See also Robson (1993: Ch. 6, Designing case studies).Google Scholar

Ethnography and qualitative research

  1. See references for Part 3, Further reading, above.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Geoff Hall 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geoff. Hall
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Applied Language StudiesUniversity of Wales SwanseaUK

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