Advertisement

Gender and Development Policy in Chile: the Aid Programme to Female Heads of Households

  • Mònica Badia Ibáñez
Part of the St Antony’s Series book series

Abstract

The Chilean neo-liberal approach to welfare has received much attention due to its emphasis on poverty reduction and on income generation through increasing access to the labour market. This chapter focuses on the Aid Programme to Female Heads of Households (Programa Mujeres Jefas de Hogar de Escasos Recursos or PMJH), in order to examine the potential of this strategy to alleviate poverty. The core elements of the programme constitute what are considered at present to be the main aspects of an innovative social policy — an integrated approach, targeting, decentralization, and participation. The analysis of the PMJH as a case study is appealing because it reflects the particular policy and strategy that the Chilean government has adopted as the means to achieve gender equity and poverty alleviation. It is also interesting to examine the extent to which the PMJH has achieved its stated goals of interlinking policies of equality of opportunities with those of poverty alleviation and of decentralization. This analysis of the PMJH raises five main issues that are pertinent to wider debates about poverty reduction policy. First, the PMJH illustrates the tensions that exist between innovative programmes and the institutional framework in which social policy operates. Secondly, it draws attention to the way in which gender issues in development appear to have collapsed into a poverty trap. Thirdly, it addresses the controversial question of targeting female heads of households for anti-poverty interventions.

Keywords

Labour Market Female Head Social Policy Poverty Alleviation Social Programme 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Afshar, H. and Barrientos, S. (eds). 1999. Women, Globalisation and Fragmentation in the Developing World. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  2. Araiz, S., Mercado, O. and Wayser, M. 1998. ‘El Caso de Chile’, in R. Lagos and C. Arriagada (eds) Población, Pobreza y Mercado de Trabajo en América Latina. Chile: OIT.Google Scholar
  3. Arellano, J.P. 1995. ‘Política Fiscal y Desarolle Social’, in Pizarro, Raczynski and Vial (eds) Políticas Económicas y Sociales en el Chile Democrático, CIEPLAN and UNICEF, Santiago.Google Scholar
  4. Barrientos, S., Bee, A., Matear, A. and Vogel. I. 1999. Women and Agribusiness. Working Miracles in the Chilean Fruit Export Sector. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  5. Bebbington, A. and Lehmann, D. 1998. ‘NGOs and the Development Process: Dilemmas of Institutionalization’, in M. Vellinga (ed.) The Changing Role of the State in Latin America. Boulder, Col.: Westview.Google Scholar
  6. Benería, L. and Feldman, S. (eds). 1992. Unequal Burden: Economic Crises, Persistent Poverty, and Women’s Work. Boulder, Col.: Westview.Google Scholar
  7. Blumberg, R.L., Rakowski, C, Tinker, I. and Monteón, M. (eds). Engendering Wealth and Well-Being: Empowerment for a Global Change. Boulder, Col.: Westview.Google Scholar
  8. Bravo, R. and Todaro, R. 1995. ‘Las Familias en Chile: Una Perspectiva Económica de Género’. Proposiciones 26. Santiago de Chile: SUR.Google Scholar
  9. Bulmer-Thomas, V. 1996. The New Economic Model in Latin America and Its Impact on Income Distribution and Poverty. London: Institute of Latin American Studies, University of London.Google Scholar
  10. Bustillo, I. 1993. ‘Latin American and the Caribbean’, in E. King and A. Hill (eds) Women’s Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits and Policies. Washington D.C.: Johns Hopkins University Press for the World Bank.Google Scholar
  11. Buvinic M., Valenzuela J., Molina T. and Gonzalez E. 1992. ‘The Fortunes of Adolescent Mothers and their Children: The Transmission of Poverty in Santiago, Chile’, Population and Development Review 18(2): 269–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CASEN 1998. Encuesta de Caracterización Socio-Económica National (National Economic Survey).Google Scholar
  13. CASEN 1996. Encuesta de Caracterización Socio-Economica National (National Economic Survey).Google Scholar
  14. Castañeda, T. 1992. Combating Poverty: Innovative Social Reforms in Chile during the 1980s. San Francisco: ICS Press, International Centre for Economic Growth.Google Scholar
  15. CEPAL 1992a. Social Equity and Changing Production Patterns: An Integrated Approach, Santiago.Google Scholar
  16. CEPAL 1992b. Major Changes and Crisis. The Impact on Women in Latin America and the Caribbean, Santiago.Google Scholar
  17. Chant, S. 1997. Women-Headed Households. Diversity and Dynamics in the Developing World. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clert, C. 1996. ‘Pobreza, Género y Exclusión Social en Chile’, Supporting Document for a Report on ‘Women’s Poverty’. Santiago: Universidad de Chile.Google Scholar
  19. Elson, D. 1991. ‘Male Bias in Macroeconomics: The Case of Structural Adjustment’, in Elson, D. (ed.) Male Bias in the Development Process, pp. 164–90. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Espinoza, V., Márquez, F. and Nuñez, L. (eds). 1996. ‘Las Mujeres y el Empleo Informal: Profundización de Algunos Aspectos para el Diseño de Políticas Sociales’. Discussion Paper no. 51. Santiago: SERNAM.Google Scholar
  21. Figueiredo, J.B. and Shaiheed, Z. 1993. ‘Reducing Poverty through Labour Market Policies’, paper presented at the symposium on ‘Poverty: New Approahes to Analysis and Policy’, Geneva.Google Scholar
  22. Gaventa, J. 1998. ‘Poverty Participation and Social Exclusion in North and South’. IDS Bulletin 29(1): 50–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Graham, C. 1996. ‘Gender Issues in Poverty Alleviation: Recent Experiences with Demand Based Programmes in Latin America, Africa and Eastern Europe’. Issues in Development No. 11. Geneva: OIT.Google Scholar
  24. Geldstein, R.N. 1997. Mujeres Jefas de Hogar: Familia, Pobreza y Género. Argentina: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  25. Guzmán, Virginia and Salazar, Rebeca. 1992. ‘El Género en el Debate de las Políticas Públicas’. Proposiciones 21: 250–62.Google Scholar
  26. Hardy, C. 1997. La Reforma Social Pendiente. Santiago: Las Ediciones de Chile 21.Google Scholar
  27. Hiscock, J. and Hojman, D. 1997. ‘Social Policy in a Fast-Growing Economy: The Case of Chile’. Social Policy and Administration 31(4): 354–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Holz, P. 1999. ‘Evaluación y Seguimiento del Programa de Habilitación Laboral para Mujeres de Escasos Recursos Preferentemente Jefas de Hogar’ Discussion Paper no. 65. Santiago de Chile: SERNAM.Google Scholar
  29. Ihnen, P. 1998. ‘Reflexiones sobre la Magnitud de la Pobreza en Chile’, CEP Discussion Paper No. 100, Santiago: Centro de Estudios Públicos, Benson Collection.Google Scholar
  30. ILPES. 1993. (Instituto Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Planificación Económica y Social) Evolución de las Políticas Sociales en Chile, 1964–1980. Google Scholar
  31. Irarrázabal, I. 1995. ‘Habilitación, Pobreza y Política Social’. Estudios Públicos 59: 99–165.Google Scholar
  32. Jackson, C. 1998. ‘Rescuing Gender from the Poverty Trap’, in R. Pearson and C. Jackson, (eds) Feminist Visions of Development. Gender Analysis and Policy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Jordana, J., M. Lasagna, and M. Salvador. 1998. ‘Descentralización del Estado en America Latina: Participación versus Políticas Públicas’. Agenda. Revista de Gobierno y Políticas Públicas, pp. 33–57, Bogotá.Google Scholar
  34. Larrañaga, O. 1995. ‘Descentralización y Equidad: el Caso de los Servicios Sociales en Chile’. ILADES Research Document. Georgetown University.Google Scholar
  35. Lloyd-Sherlock, P. 2000. ‘The Need for New Approaches to Welfare to Promote Development’. Journal of International Development 12(1).Google Scholar
  36. Márquez, F. and Rosenfeld, A. 1996. ‘Seguimiento Evaluativo de la Implementación Municipal del PMJH’. Discussion Paper no. 43. Santiago de Chile: SERNAM.Google Scholar
  37. Matear, A. 1997. ‘Gender and the State in Rural Chile’. Bulletin of Latin American Research 16(1): 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. MIDEPLAN. 1999. Resultados de la Encuesta de Caracterización Socioeconómica Nacional 1998. Santiago.Google Scholar
  39. MIDEPLAN. 1997. Pobreza y Distribución del Ingreso en Chile, 1996: Resultados de la Encuesta de Caracterización Socioeconómica Nacional. Santiago.Google Scholar
  40. Molyneux, M. 1998. ‘Analysing Women’s Movements’. Development and Change 29(2): 219–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Moser, C. 1996. ‘Pobreza Urbana, Políticas Sociales y Género en un Contexto de Crisis Económica’, in M.E. Ducci, V. Fernández and M. Saborido (eds) Asentamientos Humanos, Pobreza y Género, pp. 32–45. Santiago: GTZ, MINVU, PGU.Google Scholar
  42. Oxhorn, P. 1994. ‘Understanding Political Change after Authoritarian Rule’. Journal of Latin American Studies 26(3): 737–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pizarro, C., Raczynski, D. and Vial, J. 1995. Políticas Económicas y Sociales en el Chile Democrático. CIEPLAN/UNICEF.Google Scholar
  44. Raczynski, D. and Romaguera, P. 1995. ‘Chile, Poverty, Adjustment and Social Policies in the 80s’, in N. Lusting (ed.) Coping with Austerity. Poverty and Inequality in Latin America. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  45. Raczynski, D. 1998. ‘Para Combatir la Pobreza en Chile’, in R. Cortazar and J. Vial (eds) Construyendo Opciones: Propuestas Económicas y Sociales para el Cambio de Siglo, 191–231. Santiago: CIEPLAN/DOLMEN.Google Scholar
  46. Schkolnik, M. and Teitelboim, B. 1998. Pobreza y Desempleo en Poblaciones: La Otra Cara del Modelo Neoliberal. Chile: Programa de Economía del Trabajo, Benson Collection.Google Scholar
  47. Serrano, C. 1995. ‘Municipio, Política Social y Pobreza’, in C. Pizarro et al. (eds) Políticas Económicas y Sociales en el Chile Democrático. Santiago: CIEPLAN-UNICEF.Google Scholar
  48. Sheahan, J. 1998. ‘Changing Social Programmes and Economic Strategies: Implications for Poverty and Inequality’. Latin American Research Review 33(2): 185–97.Google Scholar
  49. UNICEF. 1990. Los Escenarios de Vida de los Niños y Mujeres de Chile. Santiago de Chile: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  50. Valenzuela, M.E, Venegas S. and Andrade, C. 1994. De Mujer Sola a Jefa de Hogar: Género, Pobreza y Políticas Públicas. Santiago: SERNAM.Google Scholar
  51. Vecchio, N. 1998. Poverty, Female Headed Households and Sustainable Economic Development. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  52. Vergara, P. 1993. ‘Ruptura y Continuidad en la Política Social del Gobierno Democrático’. Discussion Paper no. 44. Chile: FLACSO.Google Scholar
  53. Vogel, I. 1995. ‘Gender and the Labour Market: Women’s Experiences of Labour Force Participation in Chile’, in D. Hojman, (ed.) Neoliberalism with a Human Face? The Politics and Economics of the Chilean Model, pp. 82–92. Liverpool: Institute of American Studies.Google Scholar
  54. Waylen, G. 1996. ‘Democratization, Feminism and the State: The Establishment of SERNAM in Chile’, in Rai, S. and Lievesley G. (eds) Women and the State: International Perspectives. London: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  55. Weinstein, M. 1996. ‘Estado, Mujeres de Sectores Populares y Ciudadanía’. Series FLACSO-Duncplas.Google Scholar
  56. Weyland, K. 1997. ‘“Growth with equity” in Chile’s new democracy’. Latin America Research Review 32(1): 37–67.Google Scholar
  57. Whitehead, L. (ed.). 1993. ‘Economic Liberalization and Democratization: Explorations of the Linkages’, in World Development XXI(8) Special Issue.Google Scholar
  58. World Bank. 1997. ‘Poverty and Income Distribution in a High-Growth Economy: Chile 1987–1995’. Washington D.C.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mònica Badia Ibáñez

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations