On What it Means to ‘Be European’: Making Citizens Talk About ‘Europe’ and ‘Europeanness’

  • Michael Bruter


In Chapters 6 and 7, I have shown that a European identity has progressively emerged in the European Union over the past 35 years, under the influence of institutions, and in particular of such mechanisms as the news on European integration and symbols of the European Union. This chapter is concerned with citizens’ perceptions of these symbols and news, and of citizens’ perceptions and understanding of ‘Europe’, ‘Europeanness’, and their own ‘European identity’. In other words, this chapter tells us what citizens mean by feeling increasingly European.


Focus Group Focus Group Discussion European Integration Focus Group Participant European Experience 
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Copyright information

© Michael Bruter 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Bruter
    • 1
  1. 1.London School of Economics and Political ScienceUK

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