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Abstract

Remembering his student years in Moscow, Ia. I. Kostenetskii wrote that ‘the university should turn a youth not just into a simple chinovnik [bureaucrat], but into a man and a citizen … For that he needs … not only lectures and books … but also comradely society.’2 This juxtaposition of the figure of a ‘simple chinovnik’ with a ‘man and citizen’ highlights the degree to which the values of the administrative ideal did not offer a complete, fully satisfying definition of manhood for Russian university students. While students were educated by the university administration in an official ideology of masculinity based on order and decency, they also encountered competing models of what constituted acceptable behavior. One of the most powerful of these was the drunken comrade who spent his after-class hours in taverns, carousing with his fellows.

Keywords

Polite Society Disciplinary System Beautiful Woman Jewish Merchant Student Dormitory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 2.
    Ia. Kostenetskii, ‘Vospominaniia iz moei studencheskoi zhizni: Part III,’ Russkii arkhiv 1 (1887): 335.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    L. Ray Drinkwater, ‘Honor and Student Misconduct in Southern Antebellum Colleges,’ Southern Humanities Review 27, no. 4 (Fall 1993): 328–31. Many scholars have pointed to the relationship between masculinity and transgressive behavior, including alcohol consumption. Writing on Oxbridge students in the nineteenth century, Paul Deslandes notes that ‘successful attempts to evade disciplinary actions were celebrated as manly achievements.’ The same was certainly true of Russian university students.Google Scholar
  3. Paul Raymond Deslandes, Jr., ‘Masculinity, Identity and Culture: Male Undergraduate Life at Oxford and Cambridge, 1850–1920’ (University of Toronto, 1999), 233. Others have explored the relationship between alcohol consumption and working-class masculinity. On this see S. A. Smith, ‘Masculinity in Transition: Peasant Migrants to Late-Imperial St Petersburg.’ In Russian Masculinities in History and Culture, 94–112.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Boris Chicherin, Vospominaniia B. N. Chicherina I (Moscow: Moscow University Press, 1991), 70–1.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    Douglas Smith, ‘Freemasonry and the Public in Eighteenth-Century Russia.’ In Jane Burbank and David Ransel, eds, Imperial Russia: New Histories for the Empire (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998), 286.Google Scholar
  6. For an expanded version of these arguments, see Douglas Smith, Working the Rough Stone: Freemasonry and Society in Eighteenth-Century Russia (Dekalb: Northern Illinois Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    On the history of drinking establishments, see R. E. F. Smith and David Christian, Bread and Salt: A Social and Economic History of Food and Drink in Russia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), 87. They mention in particular that the word kabak was used in the sixteenth century to mean state-licensed drink shop. To describe the places where they drank in the nineteenth century, student memoirists often used the term traktir, which — at least in eighteenth-century usage — was ‘primarily a drinking establishment where eating was of secondary importance.’Google Scholar
  8. On this see George Munro, ‘Food in Catherinian Russia.’ In Food in Russian History and Culture (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1997), 42.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nikolai Dmitrievich Dmitriev, ‘Studencheskie vospominaniia o Moskovskom universitete,’ Otechestvennye zapiski 122, no. 1 (January 1859): 3.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. I. Buslaev, Moi vospominaniia akademika F. I. Buslaeva (Moscow, 1897), 12.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Georgievskii, ‘Moi vospominaniia i razmyshleniia,’ Russkaia starina 165, no. 6 (June 1915): 428.Google Scholar
  12. 19.
    P. P. Semenov Tian-Shanskii, ‘Sankt Peterburskii universitet (1845–1848 gg.),’ In Leningradskii universitet v vospominaniiakh sovremennikov: tom I. Peterburgskii universitet 1819–1894, ed. V. V. Mavrodin (Leningrad: Leningrad University Press, 1956), 44.Google Scholar
  13. 24.
    RGIA, fond 733, op. 40, d. 119; and N. P. Zagoskin, Istoriia Kazan’skogo universiteta za perviia sto let ego sushchestvovaniia IV (Kazan’, 1906), 98–9. Zagoskin emphasized the fact that Bobin was a Tatar, and therefore the university and state authorities were far less lenient with him. There are many examples of students fighting with other students as well as students fighting with non-students or former students. Archival documents on the former include: Arkhiv gosudarstvennyi istoricheskii muzeia g. Moskvy (GIM) fond 404, op. 1, d. 32, 1. 13; RGIA fond 733, op. 47, d. 85 and Tsentral’nyi istoricheskii arkhiv Moskvy (TsIAM) fond 16, op. 39 d. 213. On the later: GIM fond 404, op. 1, d. 32 11. 28–32 and TsIAM fond 16, op. 39, d. 161.Google Scholar
  14. 31.
    Descriptions of this incident appear in RGIA fond 733, op. 42, d. 182; and in P. F. Vistengof, ‘Iz moikh vospominanii,’ Istoricheskii vestnik 16, no. 5 (1884): 349.Google Scholar
  15. 47.
    N. A. Popov, ‘Iz vospomiananii starogo studenta,’ Istoricheskii vestnik 12, no. 18 (December 1884): 687.Google Scholar
  16. 48.
    A. N. Afanas’ev, ‘Moskovskii universiet v 1840-kh godakh,’ Russkaia starina 55 (September 1887): 651.Google Scholar
  17. 50.
    Afanas’ev, ‘Moskovskii universiet,’ 651. There are other student accounts of Nakhimov’s drinking, including N. A. Popov, ‘Iz vospomiananii starogo studenta.’ In Russkie universitety v ikh ustavakh i vospominaniiakh sovremennikov, ed. I. M. Solov’ev (St Petersburg, 1914), 136–7.Google Scholar
  18. 58.
    Nikolai Dmitrievich Dmitriev, ‘Materialy dlia kharakteristiki,’ Russkoe obozrenie 19, no. 1 (January 1893): 726–7. Fet remarked in his memoir that Nakhimov often played a prominent role in his student poetry and that of his peers. He mentioned, in particular, a poem that Polonskii wrote to Nakhimov.Google Scholar
  19. A. A. Fet, Rannye gody moei zhizni (Moscow, 1893), 210–11.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Rebecca Friedman 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rebecca Friedman
    • 1
  1. 1.Florida International UniversityUSA

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