Remembering his student years in Moscow, Ia. I. Kostenetskii wrote that ‘the university should turn a youth not just into a simple chinovnik [bureaucrat], but into a man and a citizen … For that he needs … not only lectures and books … but also comradely society.’2 This juxtaposition of the figure of a ‘simple chinovnik’ with a ‘man and citizen’ highlights the degree to which the values of the administrative ideal did not offer a complete, fully satisfying definition of manhood for Russian university students. While students were educated by the university administration in an official ideology of masculinity based on order and decency, they also encountered competing models of what constituted acceptable behavior. One of the most powerful of these was the drunken comrade who spent his after-class hours in taverns, carousing with his fellows.


Polite Society Disciplinary System Beautiful Woman Jewish Merchant Student Dormitory 
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    Ia. Kostenetskii, ‘Vospominaniia iz moei studencheskoi zhizni: Part III,’ Russkii arkhiv 1 (1887): 335.Google Scholar
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    L. Ray Drinkwater, ‘Honor and Student Misconduct in Southern Antebellum Colleges,’ Southern Humanities Review 27, no. 4 (Fall 1993): 328–31. Many scholars have pointed to the relationship between masculinity and transgressive behavior, including alcohol consumption. Writing on Oxbridge students in the nineteenth century, Paul Deslandes notes that ‘successful attempts to evade disciplinary actions were celebrated as manly achievements.’ The same was certainly true of Russian university students.Google Scholar
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© Rebecca Friedman 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rebecca Friedman
    • 1
  1. 1.Florida International UniversityUSA

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