Diplomacy pp 70-83 | Cite as

Packaging Agreements

  • G. R. Berridge


Diplomatic agreements vary in form to an almost bewildering degree. They vary in title or style, being given such descriptions as treaty final act, protocol, exchange of notes, and even plain ‘agreement’. They vary significantly in textual structure, language, whether they are written or oral, and whether or not they are accompanied by side letters. They also vary in whether they are publicized or kept secret. The purpose of this chapter is to explain this variation, and to indicate what form an agreement might take depending on its subject matter and the political needs of its authors.


International Agreement Vienna Convention Informal Agreement Soviet Troop International Legal Obligation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Further reading

  1. Cohen, R., Negotiating across Cultures, revised edn (US Institute of Peace Press: Washington, 1997): ch. 9.Google Scholar
  2. Cradock, P., Experiences of China (John Murray: London, 1994): chs 19, 20, 23.Google Scholar
  3. Franck, T. M. and E. Weisband, Foreign Policy by Congress (Oxford University Press: New York/Oxford, 1979).Google Scholar
  4. Glennon, M. J., ‘The Senate role in treaty ratification’, American Journal of International Law, 77, 1983.Google Scholar
  5. Grenville, J. A. S. and B. Wasserstein, The Major International Treaties since 1945: A history and guide with texts (Methuen: London/New York, 1987).Google Scholar
  6. Johnson, L. K., The Making of International Agreements: Congress confronts the executive (New York University Press: New York/London, 1984).Google Scholar
  7. Roberts, Sir Ivor (ed.), Satow’s Diplomatic Practice, 6th edn (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2009).Google Scholar
  8. Shaw, M. N., International Law, 6th edn (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge/ New York, 2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. UN Treaty Collection: Treaty Reference Guide [www]. The notes and definitions provided here are extremely valuable.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© G. R. Berridge 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. R. Berridge

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