Diplomacy pp 55-69 | Cite as

Diplomatic Momentum

  • G. R. Berridge


The momentum of a negotiation might falter, even if the parties are serious about proceeding. This was a recurring problem with the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations, which started in September 1986 and was not finally completed until April 1994. Why might momentum falter? Why is it serious? And what might be done to prevent it? The first two questions are not especially problematical and have, in any case, already been touched upon. As a result, the greater part of this chapter will discuss the practical stratagems falling under the heading of the third — other than inducements such as side payments and guarantees offered by a mediator, which will be dealt with in Chapter 15.


Uruguay Round Side Payment Summit Meeting Ceasefire Agreement Senior Personnel 
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Further reading

  1. Berridge, G. R., ‘Diplomacy and the Angola/Namibia Accords, December 1988’, International Affairs, 65(3), 1989.Google Scholar
  2. Carter, J., Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a president (Bantam Books: New York, 1982): 267–429, on the Egypt-Israel negotiations.Google Scholar
  3. Cradock, P., Experiences of China (John Murray: London, 1994): chs 16–20, 23, on the negotiations in 1983–84 for the transfer of Hong Kong from British to Chinese sovereignty.Google Scholar
  4. De Soto, A., ‘Ending violent conflict in El Salvador’, in C. A. Crocker, F. O. Hampson and P. R. Aall (eds), Herding Cats: Multiparty mediation in a complex world (United States Institute of Peace Press: Washington, DC, 1999).Google Scholar
  5. Harrison, S., ‘Inside the Afghan talks’, Foreign Policy, Fall, 1988.Google Scholar
  6. Lakoff, G. and M. Johnson, Metaphors We Live By (University of Chicago Press: Chicago/London, 1980): esp. chs 1–3, 11, 16 and 23.Google Scholar
  7. Mitchell, George J., Making Peace (Heinemann: London, 1999): 126–83, on the Good Friday agreement on Northern Ireland.Google Scholar
  8. Moore, Christopher, The Mediation Process: Practical strategies for resolving conflict, 2nd edn (Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, 1996): 291–300, on deadlines.Google Scholar
  9. Quandt, W. B., Camp David: Peacemaking and politics (Brookings Institution: Washington, DC, 1986).Google Scholar
  10. Ross, Dennis, Statecraft: And how to restore America’s standing in the world (Farrar, Straus & Giroux: New York, 2007): 205–7, on deadlines.Google Scholar
  11. Sullivan, J. G., ‘How peace came to El Salvador’, Orbis, Winter, 1994: 83–98.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© G. R. Berridge 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. R. Berridge

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