Gender Wages and Careers in the Retail Trade and IT Services: The Case of Finland

  • Rita Asplund
  • Reija Lilja

Abstract

The retail and information technology (IT) sectors are interesting extremes when it comes to men and women in the labour market. The retail trade is traditionally a female-dominated sector at the lower end of the pay scale. On average they have lower education levels and their career opportunities are rather limited. The IT sector, in contrast, is male-dominated, rapidly expanding, well-paid and offers good career prospects, especially for young, highly educated, well-trained people. The technological level is high and rapidly progressing.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asplund, R. (2001) Mobility and Earnings. An analysis of Finnish manufacturing and services, Discussion Paper No. 753 (Helsinki: ETLA).Google Scholar
  2. Asplund, R., E. Barth, N. Smith and E. Wadensjö (1996) ‘The Male–Female Wage Gap in the Nordic Countries’, in E. Wadensjö, (ed.), The Nordic Labour Markets in the 1990’s (Amsterdam: North-Holland).Google Scholar
  3. Asplund, R. and R. Lilja (2003) ‘IT sector and retail trade careers – does gender matter? A gender-specific analysis of gates-of-entry, wage gaps, careers and earnings growth for Finland’, in Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Developing Sectoral Stragegies to Address Gender Pay Gaps (Helsinki: Ministry of Social Affairs and Health), 65–202.Google Scholar
  4. Asplund, R. and I. Persson (2000) ‘Low pay – A special affliction of women’, in M. Gregory, W. Salverda and S. Bazen (eds), Labour Market Inequalities: Problems and Policies in International Perspective (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  5. Baker, G., M. Gibbs and B. Holmström (1994) ‘The Internal Economics of the Firm: Evidence from Personnel Data’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, November, 881–919.Google Scholar
  6. Chiplin, B. (1979) ‘The Evaluation of Sex Discrimination: Some Problems and a Suggested Reorientation’, in C. B. Lloyd, E. Andrews and C. L. Gilroy (eds), Women in the Labor Market (New York: Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
  7. Dolado, J. J., F. Felgueroso and J. F. Jimeno (2002) Recent trends in occupational segregation by gender: a look across the Atlantic, CEPR Discussion Paper No. 3421 (London: CEPR; downloadable from www.cepr.org/pubs/dps/DP3421.asp).Google Scholar
  8. Goldin, C. (2002) A Pollution Theory of Discrimination: Male and Female Differences in Occupations and Earnings, NBER Working Paper 8985 (Cambridge, Mass.: NBER).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Granqvist, L. and H. Persson (1999) ‘Career mobility in the private sector – are women trapped in “bad” jobs?’, in Employment and social affairs (Brussels: European Commission), 71–91.Google Scholar
  10. Greene, W. H. (2000) Econometric Analysis, 4th edn (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall).Google Scholar
  11. Greenhalgh, C. (1980) ‘Male–Female Wage Differentials in Great Britain: Is Marriage an Equal Opportunity?’, Economic Journal, 90, 751–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Groot, W. and H. Maassen van den Brink (1996) ‘Glass ceilings or dead ends: job promotion of men and women compared’, Economics Letters, 53, 221–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lazear, E. P. (1992) ‘The Job as a Concept’, in W. J. Burns Jr (ed.), Performance Measurement, Evaluation and Incentives (Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press), 260–5.Google Scholar
  14. Lilja, R. (1995) Career Mobility in Finnish Industry, Discussion Paper No. 544 (Helsinki: ETLA).Google Scholar
  15. Neumark, D. (1988) ‘Employers’ Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination’, Journal of Human Resources, 23 (3), 279–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Oaxaca, R. (1973) ‘Male–Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets’, International Economic Review, 14 (3), 693–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Persson, I. and C. Jonung (eds) (1998) Women’s Work and Wages (London: Routledge).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rosenbaum, J. E. (1984) Career Mobility in a Corporate Hierarchy (New York: Academic Press).Google Scholar
  19. Santasalo, T. (2001) Tutkimus tukku-, vähittäis-ja autokaupan palkansaajista ammatin ja työajan mukaan 1999 ja 2000 (Helsinki).Google Scholar
  20. Vartiainen, J. (2002) Gender Wage Differentials in the Finnish Labour Market (Helsinki: Gender Equality Unit, Ministry of Health and Social Affairs; downloadable from www.tasa-arvo.fi/julkaisuja/index.html).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Rita Asplund and Reija Lilja 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rita Asplund
  • Reija Lilja

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations