Advertisement

Access to Health Services

  • A. S. Bhalla
Chapter
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

The economics of good health is well known, but the contribution of a healthy people to development may be worth repeating: gains in worker productivity, improved utilisation of natural resources, better education and reduction in costs of medical care (resources thus released can be used for other developmental purposes)1

Keywords

Rural Health Primary Health Centre World Development Report Political Weekly Rural Health Service 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes and References

  1. World Bank, World Development Report 1993 — Investing in Health, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Bank, World Development Report, 1985, Washington DC and New York, Oxford University Press, 1985, tables 1 and 23.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Teh-Wei Hu, ‘Health Care Services in China’s Economic Development’, in Robert F. Dernberger (ed.), China’s Development Experience in Comparative Perspective, Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press, 1980; and P. G. K. Panikar, ‘Financing Health Care in China: Implications of Some Recent Developments’, Economic and Political Weekly, 19 April 1986.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Teh-Wei Hu, ‘Health Care Services in China’s Economic Development’, op. cit.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    David M. Lampton, ‘Health, Conflict and the Chinese Political System’, Michigan Papers in Chinese Studies, No. 18, Ann Arbor, Michigan University, 1974.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nicholas R. Lardy, Economic Growth and Distribution in China, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1978, p. 178.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    William C. Hsiao, The Incomplete Revolution: China’s Health Care System Under Market Socialism, paper prepared for the Conference on the Social Consequences of the Chinese Economic Reforms, Fairbank Centre for East Asian Research, Harvard University, 13–15 May 1988.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
    See World Bank, Financing Health Services in Developing Countries — An Agenda for Reform, Washington DC, 1987; and Amartya Sen and Jean Drèze, Hunger and Public Action, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    See Yinong Shao, The Chinese Health System, London, Office of Health Economics, UK, 1988.Google Scholar
  11. 13.
    Cited in Ashish Bose, ‘Evolution of Health Policy in India’, in Ashish Bose and P. B. Desai, (eds), Studies in Social Dynamics of Primary Health Care, New Delhi, Hindustan Publishing Corporation, 1983, p. 39.Google Scholar
  12. 14.
    Ibid, p. 40.Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    Lincoln Chen, ‘Coping with Economic Crisis: Policy Development in China and India’, Health Policy and Planning, vol. 2, no. 2, 1987, p. 141.Google Scholar
  14. 16.
    See Debabar Banerji, ‘Health Policies and Programmes in India in the Eighties’, Economic and Political Weekly, March 21, 1992.Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    V. B. Tulasidhar, ‘Expenditure Compression and Health Sector Outlays’, Economic and Political Weekly, November 6, 1993.Google Scholar
  16. 18.
    Government of India, Directorate-General of Health Services, Health Information of India, New Delhi, several years.Google Scholar
  17. 19.
    Robert L. Parker, ‘Health Care Expenditure in a Rural Indian Community’, Social Sciences and Medicine, vol. 22, no. 1, 1986.Google Scholar
  18. 20.
    Debabar Banerji, Health and Family Planning Services in India, New Delhi, Lok Paksh, 1985, pp. 295–6.Google Scholar
  19. 21.
    WHO, ‘Methodology of Nutritional Surveillance’, Technical Report Series, No. 593, Geneva, 1976.Google Scholar
  20. 22.
    Philip Musgrave, ‘Measurement of Equity in Health’, World Health Statistics Quarterly, vol. 39, no. 4, 1986, pp. 325–35.Google Scholar
  21. 23.
    Government of India, office of the Registrar General, Survey on Infant Mortality and Child Mortality, New Delhi, 1979, p. 11.Google Scholar
  22. 24.
    Ronald Anderson, ‘Health Status Indices and Access to Medical Care’, American Journal of Public Health, vol. 68, no. 5, 1978.Google Scholar
  23. 25.
  24. 26.
    These data are taken from World Bank, World Development Report, 1983, New York, Oxford University Press, 1983; and UNICEF, State of the World’s Children, 1982–83, New York, 1983.Google Scholar
  25. 27.
    World Bank, CHINA: Socialist Economic Development, Vol. III, Washington DC, 1983, p. 7.Google Scholar
  26. 28.
    World Bank, World Development Report, 1990, New York, Oxford University Press, 1990, table 28, p. 232.Google Scholar
  27. 29.
    World Bank, World Development Report, 1988, New York, Oxford University Press, 1988, table 29, p. 278.Google Scholar
  28. 30.
    Judith Banister, China’s Changing Population, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  29. 31.
    Carl Riskin, ‘Feeding China: The Experience since 1979’, WIDER Working Paper No. 27, Helsinki, November 1987.Google Scholar
  30. 32.
    Amartya Sen and Sunil Sen Gupta, ‘Malnutrition of Rural Children and the Sex Bias’, Economic and Political Weekly, Annual Number, vol. XVIII, nos 19–21, May 1983; and Jocelyn Kynch and Amartya Sen, ‘Indian Women: Well-being and Survival’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, vol. 7, nos 3–4, September/December 1983.Google Scholar
  31. 33.
    Mary E. Young and Andre Prost, ‘Child Health in China’, World Bank Staff Working Papers, No. 767, Washington DC, 1985.Google Scholar
  32. 34.
    Leela Visaria, ‘Infant Mortality in India — Level, Trends and Determinants’, Economic and Political Weekly, 24 August 1985; and Amartya K. Sen, ‘Family and Food: Sex Bias in Poverty’ in T. N. Srinivasan and Pranab K. Bardhan (eds), Rural Poverty in South Asia, New York, Columbia University Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  33. 35.
    Pranab K. Bardhan. ‘Sex Disparity in Child Survival in Rural India’, in Srinivasan and Bardhan (eds), ibid.Google Scholar
  34. 36.
    Gopalakrishna Kumar, ‘Gender, Differential Mortality and Development: The Experience of Kerala’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, December 1989.Google Scholar
  35. 37.
    Ibid; and S. H. Preston, Mortality Patterns in National Populations, New York, Academic Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  36. 38.
    Athar Hussain and Nicholas Stern, On the Recent Increase in Death Rates in China, London School of Economics, July 1988 (mimeo).Google Scholar
  37. 39.
    People’s Republic of China, Ministry of Public Health, Selected Edition on Health Statistics in China, 1978–1990, Beijing 1991.Google Scholar
  38. 40.
    See Rushikesh M. Maru, ‘ Health Manpower Strategies for Rural Health Services, India and China, 1949–1975’, Economic and Political Weekly, Special Number, August 1976.Google Scholar
  39. 42.
    Taras Maitra, Banamali Dey and Nikhilesh Bhattacharva, ‘An Enquiry on the Distribution of Public Education and Health Services in West Bengal’, Sankhya, Series C (Quantitative Economics), vol. 36, parts 2 and 4, June 1974, p. 543.Google Scholar
  40. 43.
    Moni Nag, ‘Impact of Social and Economic Development on Mortality: A Comparative Study of Kerala and West Bengal’, Economic and Political Weekly, Annual Number, May 1983.Google Scholar
  41. 44.
    UN, Poverty, Unemployment and Development Policy — A Case Study of Selected Issues with Special reference to Kerala, New York, 1975, pp. 138–40.Google Scholar
  42. 47.
    Robert L. Parker and Alan R. Hinman, ‘Use of Health Services’, American Journal of Public Health, vol. 72, Supplement, 1982.Google Scholar
  43. 48.
  44. 49.
    David L. Lampton, ‘Performance and the Chinese Political System: A Preliminary Assessment of Education and Health Policies’, China Quarterly, September 1978.Google Scholar
  45. 50.
  46. 53.
    W. Parish, ‘Egalitarianism in Chinese Society’, Problems of Communism, January–February 1981.Google Scholar
  47. 55.
    N. H. Antia, ‘An Alternative Strategy for Health Care: The Mandwa Project’, Economic and Political Weekly, 21–28 December 1985; and N. H. Antia, ‘The Mandwa Project — An Experiment in Community Participation’, International Journal of Health Services, vol. 18, no. l, 1988.Google Scholar
  48. 57.
    David F. Pyle, ‘From Pilot Project to Operational Program in India: The Problems of Transition’, in Merilee S. Grindle (ed.), Politics and Policy Implementation in the Third World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1980.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© A. S. Bhalla 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. S. Bhalla
    • 1
  1. 1.CommugnySwitzerland

Personalised recommendations