Classes, Technology and Access

  • A. S. Bhalla


The economic/spatial inequalities and imbalances will be influenced by the unequal access of different income and social classes to assets, technology, information and other inputs.


Direct Foreign Investment Foreign Investment Small Farmer Development Outcome Collective Farm 
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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    See Frances Stewart, Technology and Underdevelopment, London, Macmillan Press, 1977; and Frances Stewart, ‘Macro-Policies for Appropriate Technology: An Introductory Classification’, in Jeffrey James and Susumu Watanabe (eds), Technology, Institutions and Government Policies, London, Macmillan Press, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ashok Rudra, ‘Technology Choice in Agriculture in India over the Past Three Decades’, in Frances Stewart (ed.), Macro-Policies for Appropriate Technology in Developing Countries, Boulder, Westview Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shigeru Ishikawa, ‘Technology Imports and Indigenous Technology Capacity in China’, ILO/WEP Research Working Paper Series, WEP 222/W-P. 185. Geneva, January 1988.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Richard Conroy, ‘The Disintegration and Reconstruction of the Rural Science and Technology System: Evaluation and Implications’, in A. Saith (ed.), The Re-emergence of the Chinese Peasantry. London, Croom Helm, 1987.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Athar Hussain, ‘Science and Technology in the Chinese Countryside’, in Denis Fred Simon and Merle Goldman (eds), Science and Technology in Post-Mao China, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    A. S. Bhalla, ‘Computerisation in Chinese Industry’, Science and Public Policy, August 1990.Google Scholar
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    Nicholas R. Lardy, Foreign Trade and Economic Reform in China, 1979–1989, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1992.Google Scholar
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    Gary H. Jefferson and Thomas G. Rawski, ‘Enterprise Reform in Chinese Industry’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Spring 1994.Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    K. K. Subramanian, ‘Chinese Technology Policy in the 1980s’, Working Paper No. 206, Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum, Kerala, June 1985.Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    Amiya Kumar Bagchi, Public Intervention and Industrial Restructuring in China, India and Republic of Korea, New Delhi, ILO/ARTEP, 1987.Google Scholar
  11. 12.
    M. R. Bhagavan, ‘Capital Goods Sector in India’, Economic and Political Weekly, 9 March 1985; and Sukhamoy Chakravarty, Development Planning: The Indian Experience, Oxford, Clarendon Press 1987, Chapter 5.Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    See Sanjaya Lall, Learning to Industrialize: The Acquisition of Technological Capability by India, London, Macmillan, 1987.Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    Lung-fai Wong, Agricultural Productivity in the Socialist Countries, Boulder, Westview Press, 1986, p. 97.Google Scholar
  14. 16.
    See Ma Yuanling, Modern Plant Biotechnology and Structure of Rural Employment in China, paper prepared for the ILO Technology and Employment Branch, Geneva, ILO, 1989 (draft).Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    Ben Stavis, ‘Agricultural Performance and Policy: Contrasts with India’, Social Scientist, May–June 1977.Google Scholar
  16. 18.
    Lung-fai Wong, Agricultural Productivity in China and India: A Comparative Analysis, paper presented at the Symposium on Feeding the People of China and India, American Association for the Advancement of Science Annual Meeting, Chicago, 15 February 1987 (March 1987, mimeo).Google Scholar
  17. 19.
    Richard Conroy, ‘Laissez-faire Socialism? Prosperous Peasants and China’s Current Rural Development Strategy’, Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, no. 12, 1984.Google Scholar
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    Biplab Das Gupta, Agrarian Change and the New Technology in India, Geneva, UNRISD, 1977; and 1989. Michael Lipton with Richard Longhurst, New Seeds and Poor People, London, Unwin Hyman, 1989.Google Scholar
  19. 21.
    Cited in J. S. Sarma, Agricultural Policy in India: Growth with Equity, Ottawa, IDRC, 1982, p. 39.Google Scholar
  20. 22.
    Ibid., p. 39.Google Scholar
  21. 25.
    See C. H. Hanumantha Rao, Technological Change in Indian Agriculture — Emerging Trends and Perspectives, Presidential Address, The Golden Jubilee Conference of the Indian Society of Agricultural Economics, Bombay, 4–7 December 1989, p. 10.Google Scholar
  22. 26.
    Erik Baark, High Technology Innovation at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics and Planning, Roskilde University Centre, Denmark, September 1987, p. 10.Google Scholar
  23. 27.
    See Anil B. Deolalikar and Anant K. Sundaram, ’Technology Choice, Adaptation and Diffusion in Private and State-Owned Enterprises in India‘, in Jeffrey James (ed.), The Technological Behaviour of Public Enterprises in Developing Countries, London, Routledge, 1989.Google Scholar
  24. 28.
    Erik Baark, Knowhow as a Commodity: Contracts and Markets in the Diffusion of Technology in China, Research Policy Institute, University of Lund, 1986, pp. 44–5.Google Scholar
  25. 30.
    Vernon W. Ruttan, Agricultural Research Policy, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1982, p. 140.Google Scholar
  26. 31.
    Iftikhar Ahmed and Vernon Ruttan, Introduction’, in Iftikhar Ahmed and Vernon Ruttan (eds), Generation and Diffusion of Agricultural Innovations: The Role of Institutional Factors, Aldershot, Gower, 1988.Google Scholar
  27. 32.
    Sudhir K. Mukhopadhyay, ‘Factors Influencing Agricultural Research and Technology: A Case Study of India’, in Ahmed and Ruttan, ibid.Google Scholar
  28. 35.
    M. Ann Judd, James K. Boyce and Robert E. Evenson, ‘Investing in Agricultural Supply: The Determinants of Agricultural Research and Extension Investment’, Economic Development and Cultural Change, October 1986.Google Scholar
  29. 36.
    World Bank, CHINA: Socialist Economic Development, Vol. II, Washington DC, 1983, pp. 75–7; and Hussain, 1989, ‘Science and Technology…’, op. cit.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© A. S. Bhalla 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. S. Bhalla
    • 1
  1. 1.CommugnySwitzerland

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