Strategies and Outcomes

  • A. S. Bhalla


Development has two important aspects: the approaches for achieving this goal and the outcomes in terms of growth, access and equity. Development planners may adopt unevenness or unbalanced growth as a deliberate strategy or it may be incidental to this strategy. Unevenness may also result from wide gaps between planning and expectations and reality. Development decisions are made on the basis of certain assumptions about the functioning of markets and institutions, the availability of resources and their utilisation which often turn out to he not valid in practice.


Income Inequality Development Strategy Income Distribution United Nations Development Programme Uneven Development 
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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    Sec James E. Anderson, Public Policymaking, New York, Praeger Publishers, 1975, p. 134 and Merilee S. Grindle (ed.), Politics and Policy Implementation in the Third World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1980. Also see Bernard Schaffer, ‘Towards Responsibility: Public Policy in Concept and Practice’, in E. J. Clay and B. B. Schaffer (eds), Room for Manoeuvre — Explanation of Public Policy Planning in Agricultural and Rural Development, London, Heinemann Educational Books, 1984.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    See Merilee S. Grindle, ‘Policy Content and Context in Implementation’, in Grindle, 1980, op. cit.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bruce F. Johnston and Peter Kilby, Agriculture and Structural Transformation — Economic Strategies in Late-Developing Countries, London, Oxford University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    For a general discussion of alternative strategies, see Keith Griffin, Alternative Strategies for Economic Development, London, Macmillan Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    See Amartya Sen, ‘Development: Which Way Now?’, Economic Journal, December 1983; Amartya Sen, ‘The Concept of Development’, in H. C. Chenery and T. N. Srinivasan (eds), Handbook of Development Economics, Vol. I, Amsterdam, North-Holland, 1988; Amartya Sen, ‘Development as Capability Expansion’, Journal of Development Planning, no. 19, 1989; and Keith Griffin and John Knight (eds), ‘Human Development in the 1980s and Beyond’, Special Issue, Journal of Development Planning, no. 19, 1989.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    See Paul Streeten, First Things First: Meeting Basic Human Needs in Developing Countries, London, Oxford University Press, 1981, ch. 4.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    Barbara A. Newman and Randall J. Thomson, ‘Economic Growth and Social Development: A Longitudinal Analysis of Causal Priority’, WorldDevelopment, April 1989.Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    Simon Kuznets, ‘Economic Growth and Income Inequality’, American Economic Review, vol. 65, no. 1, 1955, and ‘Quantitative Aspects of the Economic Growth of Nations: V-Long-term Trends in Capital Formation Proportions’, Economic Development and Cultural Change, vol. 11, July 1960.Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    S. Anand and S. M. R. Kanbur, ‘The Kuznets Process and the InequalityDevelopment Relationship’, Discussion Paper No. 249, Economics Department, Essex University, August 1984; and ‘Inequality and Development — A Critique’, Journal of Development Economics, June, 1993. Also see N. Stern, ‘The Economics of Development — A Survey’, Economic Journal, September 1989.Google Scholar
  10. I I. Keith Griffin and Azizur Rahman Khan, ‘Poverty in the World: Ugly Facts and Fancy Models’, World Development, March 1978.Google Scholar
  11. 12.
    Amit Bhaduri, Macroeconomics — The Dynamics of Commodity Production, London, Macmillan Press, 1986, ch. 1. D. 9.Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    Ashok Mitra, Terms of Trade and Class Relations, London, Frank Cass Ltd, 1977.Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    Alain de Janvey and K. Subbarao, Agricultural Price Policy and Income Distribution in India, Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1986; and Keith Griffin and Jeffrey James, The Transition to Egalitarian Development, London, Macmillan Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  14. 16.
    Michael Lipton, Why Poor People Stay Poor — Urban Bias in World Development, London, Temple Smith, 1977.Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    John Toye, Political Economy and the Analysis of Indian Development’, Modern Asian Studies, February 1988, and Bhaduri, Macroeconomics, op. cit.Google Scholar
  16. 18.
    Wilfred Malenbaum, ‘A Gloomy Portrayal of Development Achievements and Prospects: China and India’, Economic Development and Cultural Change, January 1990; and Robert F. Dernberger and Richard S. Eckaus, Financing Asian Development 2 — China and India, The Asia Society, Lanham, MD, University Press of America, 1988.Google Scholar
  17. 19.
    George Rosen, Contrasting Styles of Industrial Reform: China and India in the 1980s, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1992.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© A. S. Bhalla 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. S. Bhalla
    • 1
  1. 1.CommugnySwitzerland

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