Perception and Knowledge

  • Calvin Pinchin


An epistemological theory is a theory of knowledge. Such theories are concerned with the questions of how we know what we know and with how we distinguish knowledge from belief, opinion or faith. What we mean by ‘knowing’ involves an analysis of the meaning of our statements. There are two opposed epistemological theories. They are the theories of Rationalism and Empiricism. In considering the two areas on which they disagree, the reader will become acquainted with important philosophical terminology.


Physical Object External World Definite Description Essential Nature Material Thing 
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  1. 7.
    A. J. Ayer, The Foundations of Empirical Knowledge (Macmillan, 1940 ), Chapter 1.Google Scholar
  2. 9.
    A. J. Ayer, The Problem of Knowledge (Pelican, 1974 ), pp. 94–5.Google Scholar
  3. 11.
    See B. Russell, Principia Mathematica (Cambridge University Press, 2nd edn, 1916), p. 66.Google Scholar
  4. 13.
    See G. Frege, ‘The Thought: A Logical Inquiry’ in Philosophical Logic, ed. Strawson (Oxford University Press, 1973 ), pp. 17–39.Google Scholar
  5. 14.
    L. Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, I (Oxford University Press, 1953 ), pp. 65–7.Google Scholar

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© Calvin Pinchin 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Calvin Pinchin
    • 1
  1. 1.Deganwy, N. WalesUK

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