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Beyond UNCED: Revenues and Reforms

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Abstract

This chapter will first examine both the current limitations and future opportunities for the reform of ODA, the financial basis of UN operations, and alternative sources of revenues to finance sustainable development. It will secondly address the agenda of UN structural reform, that goes beyond the Agenda 21-derived possibilities raised at UNCED and described in the preceding chapter.

Keywords

Security Council Carbon Dioxide Emission Cent Target Environmental Security Global Environmental Facility 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    For a balanced view of the UN’s problems, see D. Williams, The Specialized Agencies and the United Nations; The System in Crisis (Hurst and Co., 1987), especially Chapter V. Also J. Harrod and N. Schrijver (eds), The UN Under Attack (Aldershot: Gower, 1988). See also the compendious end-of-the-decade survey contained in M. Karns and K. Mingst (eds), The United States and the Multilateral Institutions (London: Unwin-Hyman, 1990).Google Scholar
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    Washington Weekly Report, XVIII-27, 11 September 1992.Google Scholar
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    UN, Agenda 21, The United Nations Pmgramme of Action from Rio, op. cit., Chapter 38. 9, p. 275.Google Scholar
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    This summary is made in a Canadian ‘non-paper’ titled Ideas of Some Delegations on Institutional Arrangements for Consideration by the UNCED Preparatory Committee, Canadian Delegation, Geneva, August 1991, mimeo.Google Scholar
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    Ernst von Weizsacker and Jochen Jesinghaus, Ecological Tax Reform (Zed Books, 1992), p. 23.Google Scholar
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    See The Independent, 6 October 1992.Google Scholar
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    A famous example of obfuscation in Scotland during the late 1980s centred on Braemar in Deeside in which, despite the town experiencing several days of temperatures recorded at circa 24 F, its pensioner residents were disqualified from making claims for cold-weather payments because ternperature readings used as the basis for calculation were taken at Aberdeen, 50 miles east, on the coast.Google Scholar
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    Grubb, op. cit., 1990, pp. 83–4. For a comprehensive analysis of the question, see also Alan S. Manne and Richard G. Richels, Buying Greenhouse Insurance; The Economic Costs of Carbon Dioxide Emission Limits (MIT Press, 1992), especially Chapter 5.Google Scholar
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    On verification of a climate-change agreement, see Owen Greene, ‘Building a global warming convention: lessons from the arms control experience?, in Pledge and Review Processes: Possible Components of a Climate Convention, Workshop Report, M. Grubb and N. Steen, RIIA, 1991, pp. xxi–xxxiii. On the IAEA mandate to inspect, see M. F. Imber, The USA, ILO, UNESCO and IAEA (London: Macmillan, 1989), Chapter 5.Google Scholar
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    Agenda 21, op. cit., Chapter 2. 22, p. 22.Google Scholar
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    See Earth Audit; The World Environment 1972–1992, Where Now? (UNEP, 1992), pp. 22–3.Google Scholar
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    The Herald, Glasgow, 5 July 1993.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    United Nations A/CONF. 151/PC/64, p. 6Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ibid., p. 7.Google Scholar
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    P. Vallely, Bad Samaritans (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1990), p. 301.Google Scholar
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    Ibid., p. 11.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ibid., p. 13.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    These and many other cases are well summarised by Caroline Thomas, The Environment in International Relations, RIIA, 1992, pp. 124–35. See M. F. Imber, ‘Environmental security; a task for the UN system’, Review of International Studies 17, (1991), pp. 201–12. On freshwater questions, see Malin Falkenmark, ‘Fresh water as a factor in strategic policy action’, in Arthur Westing (ed), Global Resources and International Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), pp. 85–114.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    The literature on environmental security is well discussed by Thomas, op. cit., 1992, pp. 115–54.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    These remarks and comparisons are contained in the report prepared by the Secretary-General at the invitation of the Security Council, which places a discussion of new peacekeeping activities in a wider post-Cold War context. See Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Agenda for Peace (New York: United Nations, 1992), pp. 6–7.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Adapted from tables in D. Deudney, ‘The Case Against Linking Environmental Degradation and National Security’, in Millennium, 19, 1990, pp. 464–6.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    J. Womack, D. Jones and D. Roos, The Machine that Changed the World (Rawson, 1990).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Mark F. Imber 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of St AndrewsUK

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