The Gulf Conflict 1990–91

  • Peter Viggo Jakobsen


I study this conflict as one coercive diplomacy exchange because the international coalition kept escalating its threats on a continuous basis until coercive diplomacy finally failed and the land war was initiated. The air war launched in January 1991 is part of the coercive diplomacy strategy since the reliance on air power left it up to Saddam Hussein to decide whether he wanted to withdraw or not.1 The ultimatum issued by the United States (US) on 22 February thus presented Hussein with a final chance to withdraw before the start of the land war. Washington gave him 24 hours to initiate an immediate and unconditional withdrawal from Kuwait. When he failed to comply, the land campaign was started.


Saudi Arabia United Nations Security Council Ideal Policy Domestic Support 
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Copyright information

© Peter Viggo Jakobsen 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Viggo Jakobsen
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CopenhagenDenmark

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