Advertisement

Introduction: Beyond Euro-optimism and skepticism

  • Jan Zielonka
Chapter
  • 26 Downloads
Part of the St Antony’s Series book series

Abstract

This book is about Europe’s apparent inability to cope with a complex international environment. The focus is not on trade and economics, where the Union is a strong and dynamic actor, but on security, diplomacy, and politics, where the Union is paralyzed. In the 1991 Maastricht Treaty, the European Union proclaimed its ambition to set up a common foreign and security policy (CFSP). Its institutional framework was quickly created, but the common policies envisaged by the Treaty hardly ever get off the ground. The question is: why? Why does the Union fail to live up to the letter and spirit of the Treaty and its broad political expectations? In the search for answers to this basic question the arguments presented in this book draw upon various intellectual schools, academic disciplines and political traditions. I also deal with many issues that are not on the usual EU agendas. Thus, this book is not only about the Union and its institutions but also about culture, identity, democracy, and power politics in present-day Europe. It is not merely about procedures of foreign policy-making, but also about conceptual challenges facing states and politicians. Nor is it simply about instruments of defense and diplomacy, but about ways of justifying and legitimizing common European endeavors. Although the book focuses on the awkward acronym, CFSP, it is in fact about the broader subject of European politics and the changing nature of international relations.

Keywords

Foreign Policy International Relation Security Policy International Politics Maastricht Treaty 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 3.
    Jacques Delors, “The Role of the European Community in the Future World System”, in The European Community after 1992: A New Role in World Politics?, Armand Clesse and Raymond Vernon, eds. (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 1991), p. 44.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    Tony Judt, “Europe: The Grand Illusion”, The New York Review of Books, (July 11, 1996), p. 9.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    European Commission, Report on the Operation of the Treaty on European Union, SEC(95), Brussels, (May 10, 1995), p. 5.Google Scholar
  4. 8.
    Juan Duran Loriga, “CFSP: The View of the Council of the European Union”, in The European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy. The Challenges of the Future, Spyros A. Pappas and Sophie Vanhoonacker, eds. (Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration, 1996), pp. 25 and 31.Google Scholar
  5. 9.
    Elfriede Regelsberger and Wolfgang Wessels, “The CFSP Institutions and Procedures: A Third Way for the Second Pillar”, European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 1, No. 1 (July 1996), p. 29.Google Scholar
  6. 10.
    See Thomas L. Friedman, “Europe Has 18 More Months to Get Its Bosnia Act Together”, International Herald Tribune, November 25, 1996;Google Scholar
  7. Charles Bremner, “EU foreign policy left in disarray by Balkan and Aegean bungling”, The Times, February 12, 1996;Google Scholar
  8. and Abram de Swaan, “De laatste les”, NRC Handelsblad, December 28, 1996.Google Scholar
  9. 13.
    Richard Holbrook quoted in Bruce Clark, “No escape from destiny — Richard Holbrook explains to Bruce Clark why the US must remain in Europe”, Financial Times, February 23, 1996.Google Scholar
  10. 15.
    See Renaud Dehousse and Joseph H.H. Weiler, “EPC and the Single Act: from Soft Law to Hard Law?” in The Future of European Political Cooperation. Essays on Theory and Practice, Martin Holland, ed. (London: Macmillan, 1991), pp. 128–31.Google Scholar
  11. 16.
    For a more detailed analysis of EU’s successes and failures in South Africa see Martin Holland, European Union Common Foreign Policy. From EPC to CFSP Joint Action and South Africa (London: Macmillan, 1995), pp. 218–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 18.
    Mathias Jopp, “The Strategic Implications of European Integration”, Adelphi Paper No. 290 (July 1994), p. 53.Google Scholar
  13. See also Jonathan Eyal, “France’s False Sense of Security”, The Independent, January 27, 1994.Google Scholar
  14. 19.
    This was suggested in: Knud Erik jørgensen, “The European Union’s Performance in World Politics: how should we measure success?”, in Paradoxes of European Foreign Policy, Jan Zielonka, ed. (London: Kluwer Law International, 1998), forthcoming.Google Scholar
  15. 20.
    See Joseph Weiler and Wolfgang Wessels, “EPC and the Challenge of Theory”, in European Political Cooperation in the 1980s. A Common Foreign Policy for Europe?, Alfred E. Pijpers, Elfriede Regelsberger, Wolfgang Wessels and Geoffrey Edwards eds. (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989), p. 252.Google Scholar
  16. 21.
    See Richard Rosecrance, “The European Union: A New Type of International Actor”, in Paradoxes of European Foreign Policy, Jan Zielonka, ed. (London: Kluwer Law International, 1998), forthcoming.Google Scholar
  17. 22.
    Gunther Burghardt, “Political Objectives, Potential and Instruments of a Common Foreign and Security Policy”, in Global Responsibilities: Europe in Tomorrow’s World, Werner Weidenfeld and Josef Janning, eds. (Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Foundation Publishers, 1991), p. 25.Google Scholar
  18. 24.
    John G. Ruggie, “Embedded Liberalism Revisited: Institutions and Progress in International Economic Relations”, in Progress in Post-War International Relations, Emmanuel Adler and Beverley Crawford, eds. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 209.Google Scholar
  19. 25.
    See Edward Fursdon, The European Defence Community: A History, (London: Macmillan, 1980), especially pp. 192–9.Google Scholar
  20. 28.
    This was well demonstrated in Mathias Jopp, “Die Reform der Gemeinsamen aussen-und Sicherheitspolitik, Institutionelle Vorschläge und ihre Realisierungschancen,” Integration, Vol. 3 (July 1995), pp. 133–43.Google Scholar
  21. 29.
    See Elfriede Regelsberger and Wolfgang Wessels, “The CFSP Institutions and Procedures: A Third Way for the Second Pillar”, European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 1, No. 1 (July 1996), pp. 42–3.Google Scholar
  22. 30.
    For a more detailed analysis of the Venice Declaration see Alfred Eduard Pijpers, The Vicissitudes of European Political Cooperation. Towards a Realist Interpretation of the EC’s Collective Diplomacy (Leiden: University of Leiden, 1990), pp. 147–69.Google Scholar
  23. 31.
    Simon J. Nuttall, European Political Cooperation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), p. 10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 32.
    See e.g. Anthony Forster and William Wallace, “Common Foreign and Security Policy: a New Policy or Just a New Name?”, in Policy-Making in the European Union, Helen Wallace and William Wallace, eds. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 411–35.Google Scholar
  25. 37.
    Pierre Lellouche, “France in Search of Security”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, No. 2 (Spring 1993), p. 130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 38.
    Robin Niblett, “The European Disunion: Competing Visions of Integration”, The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Winter 1997), p. 95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 40.
    Susan Strange, Retreat of the State. The Diffusion of Power in the World Economy (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 3.Google Scholar
  28. See, e.g., Alfred van Staden, “Politieke Wetenschap en Politiek Comentaar”, Internationale Spectator, Vol. 51, No. 2 (February 1997), pp. 100–3.Google Scholar
  29. 42.
    John Lewis Gaddis, “International Relations Theory and the End of the Cold War”, International Security, Vol. 17, No. 3, (Winter 1992/93), pp. 53 and 55.Google Scholar
  30. For a European version of this argument see e.g. Maarten Brands, “The Obsolence of almost all Theories concerning International Relations,” Uhlenbeck Lecture No. 14, (Wassenaar: The Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences, 1996), pp. 3–25.Google Scholar
  31. 43.
    See, e.g., George A. Reisch, “Chaos, History, and Narrative,” History and Theory, Vol. 30, No. 1 (1991), pp. 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 44.
    Susan Strange, “Review of K.J. Holsti, The Dividing Discipline. Hegemony and Diversity in International Relations”, in International Journal, Vol. 42, No. 2 (Spring 1987), pp. 398–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 45.
    See John Petersen, “Decision-Making in the European Union: Towards a Framework for Analysis”, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 2, No. 1 (March 1995), p. 83.Google Scholar
  34. See also Michael Clarke, “Foreign Policy Analysis: A Theoretical Guide”, in Domestic Sources of Foreign Policy: West European Reactions to the Falkland Conflict, Stelios Stavridis and Christopher Hill, eds. (Oxford: Berg, 1996), p. 21.Google Scholar
  35. 46.
    Complementarity between realism and liberalism was well illustrated in Joseph S. Ney, “Neorealism and Neoliberalism”, World Politics, Vol. 40, No. 1 (October 1987), pp. 234–51.Google Scholar
  36. Vast areas of complementarity between realism and constructivism are enumerated in Alexander Wendt, “Constructing International Politics”, International Security, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Summer 1995), pp. 71–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. See also Christopher Hill, “1939: The Origins of Liberal Realism”, Review of International Studies, Vol. 15, No. 4 (October 1989), pp. 319–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 47.
    For the opposite view see Kenneth Waltz, “Reflections on ‘The Theory of International Politics’: A Response to My Critics”, in Neorealism and Its Critics, Robert Owen Keohane, ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), p. 340.Google Scholar
  39. 48.
    Thomas Risse-Kappen, “Structure of Governance and Transnational Relations: What Have We Learned?” in Bringing Transnational Relations Back In. Non-State Actors, Domestic Structures and International Relations, Thomas Risse-Kappen, ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. See also Daniel Wincott, “Institutional Interaction and European Integration: Towards an Everyday Critique of Liberal Intergovernmentalism,” Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 33, No. 4 (December 1995), pp. 597–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 49.
    For theoretical implications of such a premise see, e.g., Friedrich Kratochwil, “Is the Ship of Culture at Sea or Returning?”, in The Return of Culture and Identity in International Relations Theory, Yosef Lapid, ed. (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1995), pp. 201–21.Google Scholar
  42. 50.
    Leszek Kolakowski, Modernity on Endless Trial (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1990), p. 240.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Jan Zielonka 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Zielonka
    • 1
  1. 1.European University InstituteFlorenceItaly

Personalised recommendations