An Evaluation: Civilization Based on Personal Decisions

  • João Carlos Espada
Part of the St Antony’s Series book series


If a negative view of social rights or, as we have also called it, a conception of basic social rights, has passed the ‘Hayekian test’ for the use of legitimate coercion in a free society, why did Hayek exclude it? Because he did not take seriously his own normative arguments in favour of the rule of law, and because he has gradually detached himself from those arguments, exchanging them for an evolutionist theory which rules out all moral and normative considerations, including the ‘Hayekian test’ itself. However peculiar and perhaps even daring this contention may sound, this final chapter on Hayek’s argument will present the case for it.


Open Society Liberal Society Liberal Ideal Spontaneous Evolution Spontaneous Order 
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Copyright information

© João Carlos Espada 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • João Carlos Espada
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Social SciencesUniversity of LisbonPortugal

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