The failure of the UN Weapons Convention to bring about a comprehensive ban on landmines paved the way for an initiative of like-minded states attempting to find ways – in the so-called Ottawa Process – to establish an effective ban on the use of landmines. The process, based on a Canadian initiative, institutionalised an effective instrument of armament control and disarmament (see Müller and Wisotzki 1997). The track record of the Ottawa Process and the ‘Ottawa Treaty to Ban Anti-Personnel Landmines’ (in the following also referred to as Ottawa Treaty or Mine Ban Treaty) was opened for signature on 3 December 1997 and led to a treaty that, after 140 states had ratified it, went into effect on 1 March 1998 to become binding international law. The treaty is believed to be the fastest entry-into-force of a major multilateral treaty ever. Despite remaining problems with its implementation (see Mutz et al. 1998) the treaty is an important instrument assisting more than 70 countries worldwide on the removal of mines.
KeywordsCivil Society Liberal Democracy Capitalist State Global Civil Society Capitalist Mode
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