Governing in the Shadow of Hierarchy New Modes of Governance in Regulation
The emergence and diffusion of new modes of governance in Europe has to be seen both in a wider context of more distant factors and a narrower context of more proximate factors. The wider context is defined by the continuing economic liberalization/deregulation and political enlargement of the European Union. The liberalization and deregulation of markets initiated in the late 1970s and continued until very recently has been of sustained importance and — under stricter political control — will be so in the future. The change in the political economy of most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries that accompanied this development has been described as a shift from interventionist to regulatory policies. It aimed at dismantling state monopolies in the provision of network services of various kinds and the creation of markets by allowing for the access of new market entrants. This development at the national level was actively promoted by European policies: the Commission pursued a policy of liberalization and deregulation. Simultaneously, though, the focus of European policies also included policies that aimed at correcting the negative external effects that markets and productive activity produce for the environment and human health (Héritier et al. 1996; Majone 1996; Eberlein 2005).
KeywordsPrivate Actor Competition Policy Market Integration Instrumental Learning Governmental Intervention
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