Introduction: Passengers of Modernity

  • Ana Parejo Vadillo
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Nineteenth-Century Writing and Culture book series (PNWC)

Abstract

The deaths of Robert Browning and Alfred Tennyson provided Victorian poetry with a symbolic sense of closure. Browning and Tennyson, as Isobel Armstrong has stated, ‘continued to write on questions central to the later part of the century until the end of their writing lives’ but by the time of their deaths, new poetries and poetic formations were already in place.3 Browning died on 12 December 1889. That same year, the avant-garde publisher T. Fisher Unwin published one of the most inventive and vanguard collections of lyrical poetry of the late nineteenth century, Amy Levy’s A London Plane-Tree and Other Verse.4 The collection included poems such as ‘London Poets’ and ‘Ballade of an Omnibus’, an inspiring celebration of modern urban mass transport.5 Indeed what was radically new about this collection was Levy’s recognition of the poetics of London and her innovative articulation of women’s experiences of urban life.

Keywords

Steam Transportation Hunt Excavation Arena 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Quoted in Robert Secor, ‘Robert Browning and the Hunts of South Kensington’, Browning Institute Studies. An Annual of Victorian Literary and Cultural History, ed. by William S. Peterson, Vol. 7 (1979), 130.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Isobel Armstrong, Victorian Poetry: Poetry, Poetics and Politics (London: Routledge, 1993), 479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 4.
    Amy Levy, A London Plane-Tree and Other Verse (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1889).Google Scholar
  4. 7.
    Michael Field, Works and Days, British Library, Add. MS. 46780 f.89. Michael Field, Sight and Song (London: Elkin Mathews and John Lane at the Sign of the Bodley Head, 1892).Google Scholar
  5. 10.
    Theodor W. Adorno, ‘On Lyric Poetry and Society’ in Notes to Literature, Volume One, ed. Rolf Tiedemann, trans. Shierry Weber Nicholsen (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), 46.Google Scholar
  6. 11.
    Margot Finn, ‘Sex and the City: Metropolitan Modernities in English History’, Victorian Studies 44:1 (2001): 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 13.
    Michel de Certeau, The Practice of Everyday Life, trans. Steven Rendall (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), 117.Google Scholar
  8. 14.
    Walter Pater, Marius the Epicurean. His Sensations and Ideas. Vol. II (London: Macmillan, 1885), 19.Google Scholar
  9. 15.
    Arthur Symons, ‘Mr. Henley’s Poetry’, The Fortnightly Review 52 (1892): 184. The essay was later reprinted as ‘Modernity in Verse’ in his Studies in Two Literatures (London: Leonard Smithers, 1897), 186–203.Google Scholar
  10. 16.
    Richard Le Gallienne, The Romantic ‘90s. Introduction by H. Montgomery Hyde (London: Putman, 1951), 122.Google Scholar
  11. 17.
    William Ernest Henley, London Voluntaries. The Song of the Sword, and Other Verses (London: David Nutt, 1893), Second edn revised; and his London Types. Quatorzains by W. E. Henley, Illustrations by W. Nicholson (London: Heinemann, 1898);Google Scholar
  12. Ernest Rhys, A London Rose and Other Rhymes (London: Elkin Mathews & John Lane, 1894);Google Scholar
  13. Arthur Symons, London Nights (London: Leonard Smithers, 1895);Google Scholar
  14. Laurence Binyon, First Book of London Visions (London: Elkin Mathews’s hilling Garland, 1896) and his Second Book of London Visions (London: Elkin Mathews’s hilling Garland, 1899); and Alice Meynell, London Impressions. Etchings and Pictures in Photogravure by William Hyde and essays by Alice Meynell (London: Constable, 1898).Google Scholar
  15. 18.
    Alice Meynell, ‘November Blue’ in Alice Meynell, Later Poems (London: John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1902), 26–7;Google Scholar
  16. Lord Alfred Douglas, ‘Impression de Nuit: London’ in The City of the Soul (London: Grant Richards, 1899), 65;Google Scholar
  17. A. Mary F. Robinson, ‘The Ideal’ in An Italian Garden. A Book of Songs (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1886), 11–12;Google Scholar
  18. Rosamund Marriott Watson, ‘London in October’ and ‘A Song of London’ in Vespertilia and Other Verses (London: John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1895), 44–6 and 41–2;Google Scholar
  19. Amy Levy, ‘London in July’, ‘The Village Garden’ and ‘Ballade of an Omnibus’ in A London Plane-Tree, 18, 30–1, and 21–2;Google Scholar
  20. John Davidson, Fleet Street Eclogues (London: Elkin Mathews & John Lane, 1893) and A Second Series of Fleet Street Eclogues (London: John Lane, 1896);Google Scholar
  21. Oscar Wilde, ‘Symphony in Yellow’ in Oscar Wilde Complete Poetry, ed. Isobel Murray (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), 141–2; andGoogle Scholar
  22. Arthur Symons, ‘In an Omnibus’ in Silhouettes (London: Elkin Mathews & John Lane, 1892), 26–7. A second version of this poem appeared in Silhouettes. Second Edition. Revised and Enlarged (London: Leonard Smithers, 1896), 21. In this version the poem is shorter and more critical in its treatment of women passengers.Google Scholar
  23. 19.
    Jonathan Freedman, Professions of Taste: Henry James, British Aestheticism, and Commodity Culture (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990), 10.Google Scholar
  24. 20.
    R. K. R. Thornton (ed.), Poetry of the ‘Nineties (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970) andGoogle Scholar
  25. G. Robert Stange, ‘The Frightened Poets’ in The Victorian City: Images and Realities, eds H. J. Dyos and Michael Wolff, Vol. 2 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973), 475–94.Google Scholar
  26. 23.
    William B. Thesing, The London Muse: Victorian Poetic Responses to the City (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1982), 148.Google Scholar
  27. 25.
    W. E. Henley (ed.), A London Garland. Selected from Five Centuries of English Verse by W.E. Henley with Pictures by Members of the Society of Illustrators (London: Macmillan, 1895) andGoogle Scholar
  28. Wilfred Whitten (ed.), London in Song (London: Grant Richards, 1898).Google Scholar
  29. 27.
    Frederick Locker-Lampson, ‘Piccadilly’ in London Lyrics (London: Chapman and Hall, 1857), 17–20.Google Scholar
  30. Graham R. Tomson, ‘In the Rain’ in A Summer Night and Other Poems. With a Frontispiece by A. Tomson (London: Methuen, 1891), 10–12.Google Scholar
  31. 30.
    See Anna Adams (ed.), Thames: An Anthology of River Poems. Compiled by Anna Adams with a Preface by Ian Sinclair and Etchings by James McNeill Whistler (London: Enitharmon Press, 1999) and her London in Poetry and Prose. Drawings by Neil Pittaway (London: Enitharmon Press, 2003). It must be noted, however, that women poets’ responses to the urban experience during the twentieth century are well represented in the 2003 collection.Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    Talia Schaffer and Kathy Alexis Psomiades (eds), Women and British Aestheticism (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999), 13.Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    Talia Schaffer, The Forgotten Female Aesthetes: Literary Culture in Late-Victorian England (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000), 6.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Holbrook Jackson, The Eighteen Nineties: A Review of Art and Ideas at the Close of the Nineteenth Century (London: Grant Richards, 1913), 127, 128.Google Scholar
  35. 37.
    See Bruce Gardiner, The Rhymers’ Club: A Social and Intellectual History (New York: Garland, 1988) andGoogle Scholar
  36. Norman Alford, The Rhymers’ Club: Poets of the Tragic Generation (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994).Google Scholar
  37. 38.
    For a study of literary salons see my ‘New Woman Poets and the Culture of the salon at the fin de siècle’, Women: A Cultural Review 10:1 (1999): 22–34. For a description of Paul Verlaine’s lecture at Barnard’s Inn see his ‘My Visit to London’, Savoy, ed. by Arthur Symons (2 April 1896): 119–35 andGoogle Scholar
  38. Henri Locard, ‘Michael Field et la “lecture de Verlaine” à Barnard’s Inn’, Confluents 1 (1975): 91–101; for Walter Pater’s lecture on Mérimée seeGoogle Scholar
  39. Michael Field, Works and Days: From the Journal of Michael Field, ed. by T. & D. C. Sturge Moore (London: John Murray, 1933), 119–21. For (literary) clubs see Amy Levy ‘Women and Club Life’, The Woman’s World (1888): 364–7; andGoogle Scholar
  40. Sheila E. Braine, ‘London’s Clubs for Women’ in George R. Sims (ed.), Living London, Vol. I. (London: Cassell, 1902), 114–18. For discussions about women writers and the British Museum Reading Room see Christine Pullen, ‘“Under the Great Dome”: Amy Levy, the New Journalism and the Poetic of “New Grub Street” ‘, paper delivered at the Conference Women’s Poetry and the Fin de Siècle. Institute of English Studies (14 June 2002) and Susan Bernstein, ‘Salon, Club, and Library Spaces as Heterotopias of Levy’s London’ paper delivered at INCS, Nineteenth-Century Worlds: Local/Global (10–12 July 2003).Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Schaffer, Forgotten, 159–96. See also her ‘A Tethered Angel: The Martyrology of Alice Meynell’, Victorian Poetry, Special Issue Women Writers 1890–1918, 38:1 (Spring 2000): 49–61; and ‘Writing a Public Self: Alice Meynell’s “Unstable Equilibrium” ’ in Ann Ardis and Leslie W. Lewis (eds), Women’s Experience of Modernity, 1875–1945 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), 13–30.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    See, for example, Isobel Armstrong and Virginia Blain (eds), Women’s Poetry, Late Romantic to Late Victorian: Gender and Genre 1830–1900 (Basingstoke: Macmillan Press — now Palgrave Macmillan, 1999).Google Scholar
  43. Linda Hunt Beckman, Amy Levy: Her Life and Letters (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  44. Joseph Bristow, ‘“All out of tune in this world’s instrument”: The “minor” poetry of Amy Levy’, Journal of Victorian Culture 4:1 (1999): 76–103. Linda K. Hughes’ work on Graham R. Tomson (Rosamund Marriott Watson) includes ‘My Sister, My Self: Networking and Self-Promotion among Fin-de-Siècle Women Poets’, Paper delivered at the conference Rethinking Women’s Poetry 1730–1930 (Birkbeck College, University of London, 1995); ‘A Female Aesthete at the Helm: Sylvia’s Journal and “Graham R. Tomson”, 1893–1894’, Victorian Periodicals Review 29:2 (1996): 173–92; ‘A Fin-de-Siècle Beauty and the Beast: Configuring the Body in Works by “Graham R. Tomson” (Rosamund Marriott Watson)’, Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature 14:1 (1995): 95–121; and ‘“Fair Hymen holdeth hid a world of woes”: Myth and Marriage in Poems by “Graham R. Tomson” (Rosamund Marriott Watson)’, Victorian Poetry 32 (1994): 97–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Angela Leighton, Victorian Women Poets: Writing Against the Heart (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992); see also her (ed.), Victorian Women Poets: A Critical Reader (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996).Google Scholar
  46. Yopie Prins, Victorian Sappho (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999); see also her ‘A Metaphorical Field: Katherine Bradley and Edith Cooper’, Victorian Poetry 33:1 (1995): 129–48; and ‘Sappho Doubled: Michael Field’, The Yale Journal of Criticism 8 (1995): 165–86.Google Scholar
  47. 43.
    See Marion Thain, Michael Field and Poetic Identity: With a Biography (London: The Eighteen Nineties Society, 2000). A biography of Mathilde Blind by James Diedrick is currently in preparation.Google Scholar
  48. See also the soon to be published biography of Graham R. Tomson: Linda K. Hughes, Graham R. Rosamund Marriott Watson, Woman of Letters (Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2005).Google Scholar
  49. 44.
    See Angela Leighton and Margaret Reynolds (eds), Victorian Women Poets: An Anthology (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995);Google Scholar
  50. Isobel Armstrong and Joseph Bristow, with Cath Sharrock (eds), Nineteenth-Century Women Poets (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996);Google Scholar
  51. Linda K. Hughes (ed.), New Woman Poets: An Anthology (London: The Eighteen Nineties Society, 2001).Google Scholar
  52. 45.
    R. K. R. Thornton and Marion Thain (eds), Poetry of the 1890s. Second Edition (London: Harmondsworth, 1997).Google Scholar
  53. 48.
    Walter Benjamin, Charles Baudelaire: A Lyric Poet in the Era of High Capitalism (London: New Left Books, 1973; rpt. Verso, 1997).Google Scholar
  54. H. J. Dyos and Michael Wolff (eds), The Victorian City: Images and Realities, 2 vols (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973);Google Scholar
  55. Raymond Williams, The Country and the City (London: Chatto & Windus, 1973).Google Scholar
  56. 53.
    Marshall Berman, All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity (London: Verso, 1982), 15.Google Scholar
  57. 54.
    See Peter Osborne, The Politics of Time: Modernity and Avant-Garde (London: Verso, 1995), 8.Google Scholar
  58. 55.
    Wendy Parkins, ‘Moving Dangerously: Mobility and the Modern Woman’, Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature 20:1 (2001): 77. I would like to thank the anonymous reader for bringing this essay to my attention.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 57.
    Miles Ogborn, Spaces of Modernity: London’s Geographies, 1680–1780 (New York: The Guildford Press, 1998), 5.Google Scholar
  60. See also Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (London: Verso, 1993) andGoogle Scholar
  61. Derek Gregory, Geographical Imaginations (Oxford: Blackwell, 1994).Google Scholar
  62. 58.
    Lynda Nead, Victorian Babylon: People, Streets and Images in Nineteenth-Century London (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 6.Google Scholar
  63. 60.
    Rita Felski, The Gender of Modernity (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995), 16.Google Scholar
  64. 61.
    See Nead, Victorian Babylon, 70; Mary P. Ryan, Women in Public: Between Banners and Ballots, 1825–1880 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990), 75–6;Google Scholar
  65. Elizabeth Wilson, ‘The Invisible Flâneur’, New Left Review 191 (1992): 90–110.Google Scholar
  66. 62.
    Griselda Pollock, ‘Modernity and the spaces of femininity’ in Vision and Difference: Femininity, Feminism and Histories of Art (London: Routledge, 1988), 67.Google Scholar
  67. 63.
    See for example Janet Wolff, ‘The Culture of the Separate Spheres: The Role of Culture in Nineteenth-Century Public and Private Life’ in The Culture of Capital: Art, Power and the Nineteenth-Century Middle Class, eds Janet Wolff and John Seed (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988), 117–34. For an examination of the subject from an architectural point of view, seeGoogle Scholar
  68. Sharon Marcus, Apartment Stories: City and Home in Nineteenth-Century Paris and London (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  69. 64.
    See among others Janet Wolff, ‘The Invisible Flâneuse: Women and the Literature of Modernity’, Theory, Culture and Society, 2:3 (1985), 37–46; and her ‘The Artist and The Flâneur: Rodin, Rilke and Gwen John in Paris’ in Tester, The Flâneur, 111–37;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jenny Ryan, ‘Women, Modernity and the City’, Theory, Culture and Society, 11:4 (1994) 35–63;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lynne Walker, ‘Vistas of pleasure: Women consumers of urban space in the West End of London, 1850–1900’ in Women in the Victorian Art World, ed. Clarissa Campbell Orr (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995), 70–85;Google Scholar
  72. Deborah L. Parsons, Streetwalking the Metropolis: Women, the City, and Modernity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  73. 65.
    Elizabeth Wilson, The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women (London: Virago, 1991), 46.Google Scholar
  74. Judith R. Walkowitz, City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late-Victorian London (London: Virago, 1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 68.
    Erika Diane Rappaport, Shopping for Pleasure: Women in the Making of London’s West End (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), 7.Google Scholar
  76. A classic study of the subject is Alison Adburgham’s Shops and Shopping 1800–1914: Where, and in What Manner the Well-dressed Englishwoman Bought Her Clothes (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1964).Google Scholar
  77. For more recent discussions, see Rachel Bowlby, Just Looking: Consumer Culture in Dreiser, Gissing, and Zola (London: Methuen, 1985);Google Scholar
  78. Elizabeth Wilson, Adorned in Dreams: Fashion and Modernity (London: Virago, 1985);Google Scholar
  79. Lori Anne Loeb, Consuming Angels: Advertising and Victorian Women (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994). 69.Google Scholar
  80. Deborah Epstein Nord, Walking the Victorian Streets: Women, Representation, and the City (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995). 70. Ibid., 3. 71. Rappaport does recognise, however, the panoramic possibilities that public transport could offer to women. See Rappaport, Shopping for Pleasure, 122–6. 72. Though historians have recognized the crucial role of public transport in the formation of the nineteenth-century metropolis, there are no equivalent studies in cultural criticism to date, especially in terms of gender. For an examination of the influence of the underground in late-Victorian theatre seeGoogle Scholar
  81. David L. Pike, ‘Underground Theater: Subterranean Spaces on the London Stage’, Nineteenth Century Studies 13 (1999): 102–38.Google Scholar
  82. For an excellent study of the underground and inter-war England see Michael T. Saler, The Avant-Garde in Interwar England: Medieval Modernism and the London Underground (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  83. For a general introduction to travel and modernity see Stephen Kern, The Culture of Time and Space, 1880–1918 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983).Google Scholar
  84. For twentieth-century discussions of women, modernity and travel, see Gillian Beer, ‘The Island and the Aeroplane: The Case of Virginia Woolf’ in her Virginia Woolf: The Common Ground (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1996), 149–78;Google Scholar
  85. Rachel Bowlby, ‘“We’re Getting There”: Woolf, Trains and the Destinations of Feminist Criticism’ in her Feminist Destinations and Further Essays on Virginia Woolf (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997), 3–15; and Parkins, ‘Moving Dangerously’, 77–92. There are, however, some excellent studies of railways in the nineteenth century.Google Scholar
  86. A classic work is Wolfgang Schivelbusch, The Railway Journey: The Industrialization of Time and Space in the 19th Century (Leamington Spa: Berg, 1986 new edn).Google Scholar
  87. Two more recent studies of railways in nineteenth-and twentieth-century fiction and cinema that I have found especially useful have been Lynne Kirby, Parallel Tracks: The Railroad and Silent Cinema (Exeter: The University of Exeter Press, 1997) andGoogle Scholar
  88. Ian Carter, Railways and Culture in Britain: The Epitome of Modernity (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001). 73.Google Scholar
  89. Christoph Asendorf, Batteries of Life: On the History of Things and Their Perception in Modernity, trans. Don Reneau (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 57. 74. Nead, Victorian Babylon, 13. George Augustus Sala suggested that all London’s improvements in circulation should be put in place to allow London to become a modern capital. See his ‘Locomotion in London’, The Gentleman’s Magazine 236 (1874): 453–65. 75. Michael Field, Works and Days, British Library, Add. MS. 46781f.22v. Michael Field’s remarks were provoked by the theatre performance of Henrik Ibsen’s The Master Builder in London in (February 1893). 76. Ibid., Add. MS. 46788 ff.96v–97.Google Scholar
  90. Michael Field, Long Ago (London: George Bell & Sons, 1889). The ‘lovely guide’ was Arthur Symons.Google Scholar
  91. 68.
    Erika Diane Rappaport, Shopping for Pleasure: Women in the Making of London’s West End (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), 7.Google Scholar
  92. A classic study of the subject is Alison Adburgham’s Shops and Shopping 1800–1914: Where, and in What Manner the Well-dressed Englishwoman Bought Her Clothes (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1964).Google Scholar
  93. For more recent discussions, see Rachel Bowlby, Just Looking: Consumer Culture in Dreiser, Gissing, and Zola (London: Methuen, 1985);Google Scholar
  94. Elizabeth Wilson, Adorned in Dreams: Fashion and Modernity (London: Virago, 1985);Google Scholar
  95. Lori Anne Loeb, Consuming Angels: Advertising and Victorian Women (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).Google Scholar
  96. 69.
    Deborah Epstein Nord, Walking the Victorian Streets: Women, Representation, and the City (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995).Google Scholar
  97. 72.
    Though historians have recognized the crucial role of public transport in the formation of the nineteenth-century metropolis, there are no equivalent studies in cultural criticism to date, especially in terms of gender. For an examination of the influence of the underground in late-Victorian theatre see David L. Pike, ‘Underground Theater: Subterranean Spaces on the London Stage’, Nineteenth Century Studies 13 (1999): 102–38.Google Scholar
  98. For an excellent study of the underground and inter-war England see Michael T. Saler, The Avant-Garde in Interwar England: Medieval Modernism and the London Underground (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  99. For a general introduction to travel and modernity see Stephen Kern, The Culture of Time and Space, 1880–1918 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983).Google Scholar
  100. For twentieth-century discussions of women, modernity and travel, see Gillian Beer, ‘The Island and the Aeroplane: The Case of Virginia Woolf’ in her Virginia Woolf: The Common Ground (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1996), 149–78;Google Scholar
  101. Rachel Bowlby, ‘“We’re Getting There”: Woolf, Trains and the Destinations of Feminist Criticism’ in her Feminist Destinations and Further Essays on Virginia Woolf (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997), 3–15; and Parkins, ‘Moving Dangerously’, 77–92. There are, however, some excellent studies of railways in the nineteenth century.Google Scholar
  102. A classic work is Wolfgang Schivelbusch, The Railway Journey: The Industrialization of Time and Space in the 19th Century (Leamington Spa: Berg, 1986 new edn).Google Scholar
  103. Two more recent studies of railways in nineteenth-and twentieth-century fiction and cinema that I have found especially useful have been Lynne Kirby, Parallel Tracks: The Railroad and Silent Cinema (Exeter: The University of Exeter Press, 1997) andGoogle Scholar
  104. Ian Carter, Railways and Culture in Britain: The Epitome of Modernity (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001).Google Scholar
  105. 73.
    Christoph Asendorf, Batteries of Life: On the History of Things and Their Perception in Modernity, trans. Don Reneau (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 57.Google Scholar
  106. 76.
    Ibid., Add. MS. 46788 ff.96v–97. Michael Field, Long Ago (London: George Bell & Sons, 1889). The ‘lovely guide’ was Arthur Symons.Google Scholar
  107. 78.
    T.C. Barker and Michael Robbins, A History of London Transport: Passenger Travel and the Development of the Metropolis. Volume 1: The Nineteenth Century (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1963), 1. My historical analysis of London transport in the nineteenth century is deeply indebted to Barker and Robbins’s magnificent and well-researched volume. This is by far the most comprehensive study of London’s transport system and more recent analyses of the matter are all based on this work.Google Scholar
  108. General histories of London’s transport include Alan A. Jackson, Semi-Detached London: Suburban Development, Life and Transport, 1900–1939 (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1973);Google Scholar
  109. Charles F. Klapper, Roads and Rails of London, 1900–1933 (London: Ian Allan, 1976); andGoogle Scholar
  110. Gavin Weightman and Steve Humphries, The Making of Modern London, 1815–1914 (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1983).Google Scholar
  111. For more recent examinations see Theo Barker, Moving Millions: A Pictorial History of London Transport (London: London Transport Museum, 1990);Google Scholar
  112. Sheila To-Day lor (ed.), The Moving Metropolis: A History of London’s Transport since 1800, Introductions by Oliver Green (London: Laurence King Publishing in association with London’s Transport Museum, 2001);Google Scholar
  113. and Stephen Halliday, Underground to Everywhere: London’s Underground Railway in the Life of the Capital (Stroud: Sutton Publishing and London’s Transport Museum, 2001).Google Scholar
  114. 79.
    John R. Day, The Story of the London Bus: London and Its Buses from the Horse Bus to the Present Day (London: London Transport, 1973), 5.Google Scholar
  115. Another good study of the London omnibus is London General, The Story of the London Bus 1856–1956 (London: London Transport, 1956).Google Scholar
  116. 81.
    Although later the service started to operate at 8 a.m., it made no difference because the working classes were long into work by that time. Roy Porter, London: A Social History (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1994), 225.Google Scholar
  117. 82.
    L. C. B. Seaman, Life in Victorian London (London: B. T. Batsford Ltd, 1973), 58.Google Scholar
  118. 92.
    Yvonne Ffrench, The Great Exhibition: 1851 (London: The Harvill Press, 1950), 185. Barker and Robbins, History of London Transport, I: 61.Google Scholar
  119. 94.
    John R. Kellett, Railways and Victorian Cities (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979), 316–17.Google Scholar
  120. See also John Hollingshead, Underground London (London: Groombridge and Sons, 1862), 203–12;Google Scholar
  121. and Henry Mayhew, The Shops and Companies of London and the Trades and Manufactories of Great Britain, Vol. I (London: Strand, 1865), especially his section on ‘The Metropolitan Railway’, 142–53.Google Scholar
  122. 95.
    Christopher Hibbert, London: The Biography of a City (1969; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1980), 184;Google Scholar
  123. Donald J. Olsen, The Growth of Victorian London (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976), 299–308.Google Scholar
  124. 97.
    See for example Edwin Chadwick, Report to Her Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, from the Poor Law Commissioner, On an Inquiry into the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain, House of Lords Sessional Papers, Session 1842, vols 26–8.Google Scholar
  125. 99.
    Both the drainage system and the underground railway had been built during the same period. The drainage system was constructed between 1859 and 1865, and the underground between 1860 and 1863. See Richard Trench and Ellis Hillman, London under London: A Subterranean Guide (London: John Murray, 1984).Google Scholar
  126. 107.
    Charles Klapper, The Golden Age of Tramways (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961), 7–15.Google Scholar
  127. 110.
    Arthur Symons, London: A Book of Aspects (London: Privately Printed for Edmund D. Brooks, 1909). Rpt. in his Cities and Sea-Coasts and Islands, Collins’ Kings’ Way Classics (London: W. Collins Sons & Co., 1918), 145. Subsequent citations refer to the Collins’ Kings’ Way Classics 1918 edition.Google Scholar
  128. 111.
    Charles Baudelaire, ‘Loss of a Halo’ in Paris Spleen 1869, trans. Louise Varèse (London: Peter Owen, 1951), 94.Google Scholar
  129. 115.
    Another interesting example is H. G. Wells’ dystopia The Time Machine (London: William Heinemann, 1895), 82. Here Wells presents the underworld people (or Morlocks) directly descending from passengers of the Metropolitan Railway in London.Google Scholar
  130. 116.
    See George Egerton, ‘A Lost Masterpiece: A City Mood, Aug. ‘93’, The Yellow Book vol. I (April 1894): 189–96;Google Scholar
  131. Evelyn Sharp, ‘In Dull Brown’, The Yellow Book vol. VIII (January 1896): 181–200. I would like to thank the anonymous reader for drawing my attention to these two stories.Google Scholar
  132. 118.
    See James Harding, Artistes Pompiers: French Academic Art in the Nineteenth Century (London: Academic Editions, 1979).Google Scholar
  133. For a historical description of the term, see Alain Rey (ed.), Le Robert. Dictionnaire Historique de la Langue Française (Paris: Le Robert, 1993), 1575.Google Scholar
  134. 120.
    Chris Jenks, ‘Watching your Step: The History and Practice of the Flâneur’ in Visual Culture, ed. Chris Jenks (London: Routledge, 1995), 146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 123.
    Henry Charles Moore, Omnibuses and Cabs: Their Origin and History (London: Chapman & Hall, 1902), 36–45.Google Scholar
  136. 124.
    Richard Sennett, Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization (New York: W. W. Norton, 1994), 338.Google Scholar
  137. 126.
    J. Milner Fothergill, The Town Dweller: His Needs and his Wants (London: H.K. Lewis, 1889), 43.Google Scholar
  138. 127.
    Hal Foster, Compulsive Beauty (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1993),Google Scholar
  139. 129.
    See also William Leiss, ‘Technology and Degeneration: The Sublime Machine’ in Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress, eds J. Edward Chamberlin and Sander L. Gilman (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), 145–64; andGoogle Scholar
  140. Anson Rabinbach, The Human Motor: Energy, Fatigue, and the Origins of Modernity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990).Google Scholar
  141. 128.
    James Cantlie, Degeneration amongst Londoners (London: Field & Tuer, 1885), 24.Google Scholar
  142. 130.
    ‘[T]he little old streets, so narrow and exclusive […] we lose our way in them, do we? –we whose time is money. Our omnibuses can’t trundle through them, can’t they? Very well, then. Down with them! We have no use for them’. Max Beerbohm, ‘The Naming of Streets’, The Pall Mall Magazine 26 (1902): 139.Google Scholar
  143. 132.
    Rosalind H. Williams, Notes on the Underground: An Essay on Technology, Society, and the Imagination (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990), 23.Google Scholar
  144. 134.
    Michel Foucault, The Archaeology of Knowledge, trans. A. M. Sheridan Smith (London: Routledge, 1995), 150.Google Scholar
  145. 135.
    Michel Serres, Atlas (Paris: Éditions Julliard, 1994) and his Les Cinq Sens. Philosophie des Corps Mêlés I (Paris: Grasset, 1985).Google Scholar
  146. 136.
    Michel Serres, Hermès IV: La Distribution (Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1977), 200.Google Scholar
  147. 142.
    See Alan A. Jackson, London’s Local Railways (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1978) especially his chapter ‘Lines for Leisure’, 95–155.Google Scholar
  148. 144.
    Henry Charles Moore, ‘Tram, ‘Bus, and Cab London’ in Living London, ed. George R. Sims, vol. II (London: Cassell and Co., 1902), 97.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    See Jonathan Riddell, Pleasure Trips by Underground (Harrow Weald: London Transport Museum and Capital Transport Publishing, 1998), 6–15.Google Scholar
  150. 151.
    John Ruskin, The Works of John Ruskin, eds E.T. Cook and Alexander Wedderburn, vol. XXXVI (London: George Allen, 1903–12), 62.Google Scholar
  151. 155.
    Jonathan Crary, Techniques of the Observer: On Vision and Modernity in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992), 14.Google Scholar
  152. 156.
    Friedrich Nietzsche, Human, All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits, trans. R. J. Hollingdale (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 132.Google Scholar
  153. 157.
    For Nietzsche, in ways which remind us of Ruskin, vision in modernity is problematic because transport and speed were creating what he considered a ‘partial’ and hence ‘inaccurate’ vision. Nietzsche was very distrustful of the sense of sight, and was terribly preoccupied with what he called ‘the immaculate perception’. For a study of Nietszche as an anti-ocularcentric philosopher see Martin Jay, Downcast Eyes: The Denigration of Vision in Twentieth-Century French Thought (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 188–92.Google Scholar
  154. 158.
    Beatriz Colomina, Privacy and Publicity: Modern Architecture as Mass Media (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1994), 12;Google Scholar
  155. Walter Benjamin, Illuminations, ed. and intro. Hannah Arendt, trans. Harry Zohn (London: Fontana, 1973), 252.Google Scholar
  156. 163.
    George Augustus Sala, Twice Round the Clock; or the Hours of the Day and Night in London (London: Houlston & Wright, 1859), 220.Google Scholar
  157. 165.
    Gianni Vattimo, The Transparent Society, trans. D. Webb (Oxford: Polity, 1992).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ana Parejo Vadillo 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Parejo Vadillo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations