Advertisement

Introduction: Northeast Asia’s Memory Problem

  • Barry Schwartz
  • Mikyoung Kim
Part of the Palgrave Macmillan Memory Studies book series (PMMS)

Abstract

Every nation-state faces the problem of representing its past in a credible and moving way. Many nations fail, and that failure constitutes a “Memory Problem”. In the West, the Memory Problem consists of an erosion of national narratives, a loosening of the bond between present and past and a fragmenting of the historical continuum into “pure, unrelated presents in time” (Jameson 1984: 72; see also Terdiman 1993). Extending Maurice Halbwachs’s ([1950] 1980) observation that “history starts when tradition ends and the social memory is fading or breaking up” (p. 78), Pierre Nora (1996) asserts that “memory is constantly on our lips because it no longer exists.” Just as history replaces tradition, commemorative symbolism, including monuments, shrines, relics, iconography and ritual, becomes “fleeting incursions of the sacred into a disenchanted world; vestiges of parochial loyalties in a society that is busily effacing all parochialisms” (p. 8). It is not new or revised historical narratives that are distinctive of the West, but an unprecedented sense that all such narratives are irrelevant.

Keywords

Cultural Revolution Collective Memory Memory Problem Cultural Memory Japanese Occupation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Assmann, A. (2007) “Europe: A Community of Memory?” Bulletin of the German Historical Institute, 40, 11–26.Google Scholar
  2. Assmann, J. (2006) Religion and Cultural Memory (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press).Google Scholar
  3. Baltzell, E. D. (1979) Puritan Boston and Quaker Philadelphia (New York: The Free Press).Google Scholar
  4. Barthel, D. (1996) Historic Preservation: Collective Memory and Historical Identity (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press).Google Scholar
  5. Becker, C. (1935) Everyman His Own Historian: Essays on History and Politics (New York: F.S. Crofts & Co.).Google Scholar
  6. Bell, D. (1976) The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism (New York: Basic Books).Google Scholar
  7. Bellah, R. N. (1970) “Values and Social Change in Modern Japan”, Beyond Belief Essays on Religion in a Post-Traditional World (New York: Harper & Row).Google Scholar
  8. Bellah, R. N. (2003) Imagining Japan: Tradition and Its Modern Interpretation (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  9. Bellah, R. N., Madsen, R., Sullivan, W. M., Swidler, A. and Tipton, S. M. (1985) Habits of the Heart (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  10. Benedict, R. (1934) Patterns of Culture (New York: New American Library).Google Scholar
  11. Benedict, R. (1946) The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture (Cleveland, OH: World Publishing Company).Google Scholar
  12. Berger, P. L. and Luckmann, T. (1966) The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (Garden City, NY: Doubleday).Google Scholar
  13. Berger, P. L., Berger, B. and Kellner, H. (1973) “On the Obsolescence of the Concept of Honor”, The Homeless Mind: Modernization and Consciousness (New York: Vintage Books).Google Scholar
  14. Bodnar, J. (1992) Remaking America: Public Memory, Commemoration, and Patriotism in the Twentieth Century (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  15. Bohman, J. (1998) “The Globalization of the Public Sphere: Cosmopolitan Publicity and the Problem of Cultural Pluralism”, Philosophy and Social Criticism, 24(2/3), 199–216.Google Scholar
  16. Bultmann, R. ([1921] 1968) The History of the Synoptic Tradition. Trans. John Marsh (New York: Harper & Row).Google Scholar
  17. Burke, E. ([1790] 1940) Reflections on the Revolution in France (New York: Doubleday).Google Scholar
  18. Chang, J. (1991) Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China (New York: Doubleday Anchor Books).Google Scholar
  19. Ching, L. T. S. (2001) Becoming “Japanese”: Colonial Taiwan and the Politics of Identity Formation (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  20. Coser, L. A. (1974) Greedy Institutions: Patterns of Undivided Commitment (New York: The Free Press).Google Scholar
  21. Coser, L. A. (ed.) (1992) Maurice Halbwachs on Collective Memory (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
  22. Cumings, B. (1981) The Origins of the Korean War, Volume I: Liberation and the Emergence of Separate Regimes, 1945–1947 (Seoul: Yoksabipyongsa).Google Scholar
  23. Cumings, B. (1990) Origins of the Korean War, Vol. 2: The Roaring of the Cataract, 1947–1950 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  24. de Bary, W. T., Gluck, C. and Tiedemann, A. E. (2006) Sources of Japanese Tradition: 1600 to 2000 (Introduction to Asian Civilizations, 2nd abridged version) (New York: Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
  25. Dent, C. M. and Huang, D. W. F. (eds) (2002) Northeast Asian Regionalism: Lessons from the European Experience (London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon).Google Scholar
  26. Dower, J. W. (1993) Japan in War and Peace: Selected Essays (New York: New Press).Google Scholar
  27. Durkheim, E. ([1915] 1965) The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (New York: The Free Press).Google Scholar
  28. Eskildsen, R. (2005) “Taiwan: A Periphery in Search of a Narrative”, The Journal of Asian Studies, no. 2, May, 281–94.Google Scholar
  29. Feng, J. (1996) Ten Years of Madness: Oral Histories of China’s Cultural Revolution (San Francisco: China Books).Google Scholar
  30. Fine, G. A. (1996) “Reputational Entrepreneurs and the Memory of Incompetence: Melting Supporters, Partisan Warriors, and Images of President Harding”, American Journal of Sociology, 101, 1159–93.Google Scholar
  31. Fujitani, T., White, G. M. and Yoneyama, L. (eds) (2001) Perilous Memories: The Asia-Pacific War (Durham, NC: Duke University Press).Google Scholar
  32. Gallicchio, M. (ed.) (2007) Unpredictability of the Past: Memories of the Asia-Pacific War in U.S. East Asian Relations (Durham, NC: Duke University Press).Google Scholar
  33. Gao, Y. (1987) Born Red: A Chronicle of the Cultural Revolution (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press).Google Scholar
  34. Geertz, C. (1973) Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books).Google Scholar
  35. Gillis, J. R. (ed.) (1994) Commemorations: The Politics of National Identity (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  36. Gluck, C. (1985) Japan’s Modern Myths: Ideology in the Late Meiji Period (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  37. Gong, G. W. and West, P. (eds) (1996) Remembering and Forgetting: The Legacy of War and Peace in East Asia (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies).Google Scholar
  38. Gordon, A. (2003) A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  39. Griswold, W. (1987) “A Methodological Framework for the Sociology of Culture”, in C. Clogg (ed.) Sociological Methodology (Washington, DC: American Sociological Association).Google Scholar
  40. Habermas, J. (1989) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).Google Scholar
  41. Halbwachs, M. (1926) Les Cadres Sociaux de la Mémoire (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France).Google Scholar
  42. Halbwachs, M. ([1950] 1980) Collective Memory (New York: Harper and Row).Google Scholar
  43. Harrison, L. H. and Huntington, S. P. (2000) Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress (New York: Basic Books).Google Scholar
  44. Hashimoto, A. (1999) Japanese and German Projects of Moral Recovery: Toward a New Understanding of War Memories in Defeated Nations. Occasional Papers in Japanese Studies (Cambridge, MA: Edwin O. Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies, Harvard University).Google Scholar
  45. Heelas, P., Lash, S. and Morris, P. (eds) (1996) Detraditionalization: Critical Reflections on Authority and Identity (Oxford, UK: Blackwell).Google Scholar
  46. Hein, L. and Selden, M. (eds) (2000) Censoring History: Citizenship and Memory in Japan, Germany, and the United States (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe).Google Scholar
  47. Hersey, J. (1946) Hiroshima (New York: Penguin Books).Google Scholar
  48. Hobsbawm, E. and Ranger, T. (eds) (1983) The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  49. Hogan, M. J. (ed.) (1996) Hiroshima in History and Memory (New York: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  50. Igarashi, Y. (2000) Bodies of Memory: Narratives of War in Postwar Japanese Culture, 1945–1970 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  51. Itoh, M. (1998) Globalization of Japan: Japanese Sakoku Mentality and U.S. Efforts to Open Japan (New York: St. Martin’s Press).Google Scholar
  52. Jager, S. M. and Mitter, R. (eds) (2007) Ruptured Histories: War, Memory, and the Post-Cold War in Asia (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
  53. Jameson, F. (1984) “Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism”, New Left Review, 146, 53–92.Google Scholar
  54. Jiang, J-L. (1998) Red Scarf Girl: A Memoir of the Cultural Revolution (New York: Collins).Google Scholar
  55. Johnson, P. (1991) Modern Times: The World from the Twenties to the Nineties (New York: HarperCollins).Google Scholar
  56. Jun, S. I. (2001) Gogaesukin Sujungjueui [Wilting Revisionism] (Seoul: Juntonggwa Hyundai).Google Scholar
  57. Jun, S. I. (2005) Hankuk Hyundaesa: Jinsilgwa Haesuk [Contemporary Korean History: Truths and Interpretations] (Seoul: Nanam).Google Scholar
  58. Katz, P. R. (2005) “Governmentality and Its Consequences in Colonial Taiwan: A Case Study of the Ta-pa-ni Incident of 1915”, The Journal of Asian Studies, no. 2, May, 281–94.Google Scholar
  59. Kesckemeti, P. (1952) “Introduction”, Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).Google Scholar
  60. Kirk, A. and Thatcher, T. (eds) (2006) Memory, Tradition, and Text: Uses of the Past in Early Christianity (Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature).Google Scholar
  61. Kwan, K. C. and Yang, G. (eds) (2007) Re-envisioning the Chinese Revolution: The Politics and Poetics of Collective Memories in Reform China (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press).Google Scholar
  62. Kwon, G.-S. (2006) Giokeui Jungchi: Daeryang Haksaleui Giwokgwa Yoksajuk Jinsil [Politics of Memory: The Memory of Genocide and Historical Truth] (Seoul: Munhakgwa Jisungsa).Google Scholar
  63. Lang, G. and Lang, K. (1990) Etched in Memory: The Building and Survival of Artistic Reputation (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press).Google Scholar
  64. Lee, K-B., Schultz, E. J. and Wagner, E. W. (1985) A New History of Korea (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
  65. Lipset, S. M. (1989) Continental Divide: The Values and Institutions of the United States and Canada (Washington, DC: Canadian-American Committee).Google Scholar
  66. Lynch, M. (1999) State Interests and Public Spheres: The International Politics of Jordan’s Identity (New York: Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
  67. Lyotard, J.-F. ([1979] 1984) The Postmodern Condition (Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press).Google Scholar
  68. Maines, D. R., Sugrue, N. and Katovich, M. A. (1983) “The Sociological Import of G. H. Mead’s Theory of the Past”, American Sociological Review, 48, 163–9.Google Scholar
  69. Mannheim, K. ([1928] 1952) “The Problem of Generations”, in P. Kecskemeti (ed.) Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul).Google Scholar
  70. Mead, G. H. (1929) “The Nature of the Past”, in J. Coss (ed.) Essays in Honor of John Dewey (New York: Henry Holt).Google Scholar
  71. Merton, R. K. (1957) “The Sociology of Knowledge”, Social Theory and Social Structure (Glencoe, IL: The Free Press).Google Scholar
  72. Moore, B. (1966) Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World (Boston, MA: Beacon Press).Google Scholar
  73. Nora, P. (1996) Realms of Memory (New York: Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
  74. Olick, J. K. (2007) The Politics of Regret: On Collective Memory and Historical Responsibility (New York: Routledge).Google Scholar
  75. Parsons, T. and Shils, E. A. (eds) (1951) Toward a General Theory of Action: Theoretical Foundations for the Social Sciences (New York: Harper & Row).Google Scholar
  76. Pelikan, J. (1984) The Vindication of Tradition (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
  77. Pelikan, J. (1985) Jesus Through the Centuries (New York: Harper and Row).Google Scholar
  78. Pratt, K. (2006) Everlasting Flower: A History of Korea (London: Reaktion Books).Google Scholar
  79. Reischauer, E. O. and Fairbank, J. K. (1962) East Asia: The Great Tradition (New York: Houghton Mifflin).Google Scholar
  80. Rieff, P. (1966) Triumph of the Therapeutic: Uses of Faith After Freud (New York: Harper and Row).Google Scholar
  81. Riesman, D., Glazer, N. and Denney, R. (1950) The Lonely Crowd: A Study of the Changing American Character (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
  82. Rorty, R. (1989) Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity (New York: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  83. Rozman, V. (2004) Northeast Asia’s Stunted Regionalism: Bilateral Distrust in the Shadow of Globalization (New York: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  84. Saito, H. (2006) “Reiterated Commemoration: Hiroshima as National Trauma”, Sociological Theory, 24, 353–76.Google Scholar
  85. Samin (ed.) (2002) (April). Giokgwa Yoksaeui Tujaeng [The Struggle of Memory and History] (Seoul: Samin Publishing).Google Scholar
  86. Schudson, M. (1989) “The Present in the Past Versus the Past in the Present”, Communication, 11(2), 105–13.Google Scholar
  87. Schudson, M. (1992) Watergate in American Memory (New York: Basic Books).Google Scholar
  88. Schudson, M. (n.d.) “Is There a Global Memory?” Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  89. Schuman, H., Akiyama, H. and Knauper, B. (1998) “Collective Memories of Germans and Japanese about the First Half Century”, Memory, 6, 427–54.Google Scholar
  90. Schwartz, B. (1996) “Memory as a Cultural System: Abraham Lincoln in World War II”, American Sociological Review, 61(5), 908–27.Google Scholar
  91. Schwartz, B. and Kim, M. (2002) “Honor, Dignity, and Collective Memory: Judging the Past in Korea and the United States”, in K. A. Cerulo (ed.) Culture in Mind: Toward a Sociology of Culture and Cognition (New York: Routledge).Google Scholar
  92. Schwartz, B. and Schuman, H. (2005) “History, Commemoration, and Belief: Abraham Lincoln in American Memory, 1945–2001”, American Sociological Review, 70, 183–203.Google Scholar
  93. Schwartz, B., Fukuoka, K. and Takita-Ishii, S. (2005) “Collective Memory: Why Culture Matters”, in D. Jacobs and N. W. Hanrahan (eds) The Blackwell Companion to the Sociology of Culture (Oxford, UK: Blackwell).Google Scholar
  94. Shils, E. A. (1981) Tradition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
  95. Shindong-A (2007) (June) Yuwol Minju Hangjaeng 20 Nyon [The 20 Year Commemoration of the June Democracy Movement] (Seoul: Dong-A Ilbo).Google Scholar
  96. Spillman, L. (1997) Nation and Commemoration (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  97. Stueck, W. (1997) The Korean War: An International History (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Universtity Press).Google Scholar
  98. Taylor, C. (1994) “The Politics of Recognition” in Amy Gutman (ed.), Multiculturalism (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  99. Terdiman, R. (1993) Present Past: Modernity and the Memory Crisis (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
  100. Thurston, A. F. (2001) “Community and Isolation: Memory and Forgetting: China in Search of Itself”, in Gerrit W. Gong (ed.), Memory and History in East and Southeast Asia: Issues of Identity in International Relations (Washington, DC: The CSIS Press).Google Scholar
  101. Torpey, J. (2006) Making Whole What Has Been Smashed: On Reparations Politics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
  102. Treat, J. W. (1995) Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
  103. Tuchman, G. and Fortin, N. (1989) Edging Women Out: Victorian Novelists, Publishers, and Social Change (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
  104. Wan, M. (2006) Sino-Japanese Relations: Interaction, Logic, and Transformation (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press).Google Scholar
  105. Wang, B. (2004) Illuminations from the Past (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press).Google Scholar
  106. Watson, R. (ed.) (1994) Memory, History, and Opposition under State Socialism (Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press).Google Scholar
  107. Weber, M. ([1904–1905] 1958) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons).Google Scholar
  108. Wu, X. (2001) “Memory and Perception: The Chinese Thinking of Japan”, in G. W. Gong (ed.) Memory and History in East and Southeast Asia: Issues of Identity in International Relations (Washington, DC: The CSIS Press).Google Scholar
  109. Yamazaki, M. (2000) Individualism and the Japanese (Tokyo: Japan Echo, Inc).Google Scholar
  110. Yamazaki, J. (2006) Japanese Apologies for World War II (London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  111. Yerushalmi, Y. H. ([1982] 1996) Zakhor: Jewish History and Jewish Memory (Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press).Google Scholar
  112. Yu, C. (2005) Little Green: Growing Up During the Chinese Cultural Revolution (New York: Simon & Schuster).Google Scholar
  113. Zerubavel, E. (2003) Time Maps: Collective Memory and the Social Shape of the Past (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
  114. Zhang, A. (2004) Red Land Yellow River: A Story from the Cultural Revolution (Toronto, Ontario: A Groundwood Book).Google Scholar
  115. Zhang, T. and Schwartz, B. (1997) “Confucius and the Cultural Revolution: A Study in Collective Memory”, Politics, Culture, and Society, 11(2), 189–212.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Barry Schwartz and Mikyoung Kim 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Schwartz
  • Mikyoung Kim

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations