Economy, Administration and Defence

  • John Haldon


At the end of the Persian wars (c. 628/629) Heraclius had reestablished the pre-existing arrangements familiar from the end of the sixth century (see pages 24–25). Two changes seem to have been the merging of the two praesental field armies into one, and the disappearance of the army of lllyricum as the area was overrun by Slav and other invaders or immigrants. There was also a partial re-establishment of Arab allies along the eastern frontier, along with the restoration of the system of at least some limitanei posts and garrisons. The regional command structure was restored to the situation before Heraclius. The system of defence in Italy and Africa had been unaffected by the Persian wars and remained unchanged.


Ninth Century Sixth Century Eleventh Century Seventh Century Eighth Century 
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© John Haldon 2005

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  • John Haldon

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