After the death of George Kastriota—popularly known as Skanderbeg—in 1467 Albania passed under nominal or actual Turkish suzerainty until 1912. The independence of Albania was proclaimed at Vlónë (Valona) on 28 Nov. 1912, and the London conference of ambassadors, decided upon its frontiers and nominated as its ruler Prince William of Wied, who arrived at Dúrrës (Durazzo) on 7 March 1914 but on 3 Sept. 1914 left the country which fell into a state of anarchy. By the secret Pact of London of 26 April 1915 provision was made for the partition of Albania; but this arrangement was repudiated by Italy on 3 June 1917, when the Italian C.-in-C. in Albania proclaimed at Gjirokástër (Argyrocastro) the independence of Albania. In Jan. 1925 the country was proclaimed a republic and on 1 Sept. 1928 a monarchy. Ahmed Beg Zogu, President of the Republic since 31 Jan. 1925, reigned as King Zog till April 1939, when, on the occupation of the country by the Italians, he fled to England. After the liberation he was formally deposed in absentia, on 2 Jan. 1946. During the years 1939–44 the country was overrun by Italian and German military forces. The official Albanian date of the liberation is 29 Nov. 1944.
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