Congo Independent State

  • J. Scott Keltie
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


The Congo Independent State has succeeded to the Congo International Association, founded in 1883 by Leopold II., King of the Belgians. That Association, having obtained the recognition of its sovereignty by treaties in 1884 and 1885, with most of the European nations and the United States of America, adhered, February 26, 1885, to the resolutions of the Congress of Berlin. These resolutions, collected in a “General Act,” establish freedom of trade in the basin of the Congo, and declare absolutely free the navigation of the Congo, its tributaries, and the lakes and canals connected with it; they lay down rules for the protection of the natives and the suppression of the slave trade, and impose on the powers which signed the Act the obligation to accept the mediation of one or more friendly governments should any serious dispute occur concerning the territories of the conventional basin of the Congo. An International Conference at Brussels in 1890 authorised the Government of the Independent State to levy certain duties on imports.


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Books of Reference concerning the Congo State

1. Official

  1. Bulletin officiel de l’Etat Indépendant du Congo.Google Scholar
  2. Convention between Her Majesty and the King of the Belgians in the name of the International Association of the Congo. London, 1885.Google Scholar
  3. Correspondence with Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Berlin respecting West African Conference. London, 1885.Google Scholar
  4. L’Etat Independent du Congo à l’Exposition de Bruxelles. Bruxelles, 1897.Google Scholar
  5. Protocols and General Act of the West African Conference. London, 1885.Google Scholar

2. Unofficial

  1. Alexia (M. G.), Le Congo Belge. Brussels, 1888.Google Scholar
  2. Bailey (H.), Travel and Adventure in the Congo Free State. London, 1894.Google Scholar
  3. Bentley (Rev. W. H.), Life on the Congo. London, 1887.Google Scholar
  4. Boulger (D. C), The Congo State. London, 1898.Google Scholar
  5. Bula N’Zau.—Travel and Adventures in the Congo Free State. 8. London, 1894.Google Scholar
  6. Burdo (A.), Les Belges dans l’Afrique centrale. 6 vols. 4. Brussels, 1891.Google Scholar
  7. Burrows (G.), The Land of the Pigmies. London, 1899.Google Scholar
  8. Chapaux (A.), Le Congo historique, diplomatique et colonial. Bruxelles, 1894.Google Scholar
  9. Coquilhat (C.), Sur le Haut-Congo. Paris, 1888.Google Scholar
  10. Cottier (M.), Droit et Administration de l’Etat Indépendant du Congo. Bruxelles, 1898.Google Scholar
  11. Droogmans (H.), Le Congo. Quatre conférences publiques. Brussels, 1895.Google Scholar
  12. Dupont (E.), Le Congo. Brussels, 1889.Google Scholar
  13. Glave (E. G.), Six Years of Adventure in Congoland. 8. London, 1893.Google Scholar
  14. Godelieve (Marie), Six ans an Congo. Bruxelles, 1898.Google Scholar
  15. Hinde (S. L.), The Fall of the Congo Arabs. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  16. Jeannent. Quatre années au Congo. Brussels, 1889.Google Scholar
  17. The Colonisation of Africa. Cambridge, 1899.Google Scholar
  18. Johnston (Sir H. H.), The Eiver Congo. London, 1895.Google Scholar
  19. Keltie (J. Scott), The Partition of Africa. 2nd Edition. London, 1895Google Scholar
  20. Le Congo Illustré. Bruxelles, 1892-95.Google Scholar
  21. Le Maire (C. F. A.), Congo et Belgique. 4. Bruxelles, 1894. Au Congo, comment les noirs travaillent. Bruxelles, 1895.Google Scholar
  22. Le Mouvement Géographique. Brussels, weekly.Google Scholar
  23. Ortroz (F. Van), Conventions Internationales concernant l’Afrique. Brussels, 1898.Google Scholar
  24. Pechuel-Loesche (Dr.), Kongoland. Jena, 1887.Google Scholar
  25. Picard (E.), En Congolie. Bruxelles. 1897.Google Scholar
  26. Reclus (E.), Nouvelle géographie universelle. Vol. XIII. Paris, 1888.Google Scholar
  27. Stanley (H. M.), The Congo and the Founding of its Free State. 2 vols. London, 1885.Google Scholar
  28. Stanley (H. M.), Through the Dark Continent 2 vols. London, 1878.Google Scholar
  29. Thys (Capt.), Au Congo et au Kassasi. Brussels, 1888.Google Scholar
  30. Trauet (L.), Le Chemin de Ferdu Congo. Brussels, 1898.Google Scholar
  31. Van Moesel, Étude sur la législature de l’Etat Indépendant du Congo.Google Scholar
  32. Ward (H.), Five Years with the Congo Cannibals. London, 1890.Google Scholar
  33. Wauters (A.J.), L Etat Independant du Congo. Brussels, 1898.—Bibliographie du Congo (1880-95). Brussels, 1896.Google Scholar
  34. White (A. Silva), The Development of Africa. London, 1890.Google Scholar
  35. Wissmann (H.), Im Innern Afrikas. Berlin, 1888.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1899

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Scott Keltie
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
    • 9
    • 10
    • 11
  1. 1.The Royal Geographical SocietyUK
  2. 2.The Geographical Societies of ParisBerlinGermany
  3. 3.The Geographical Societies of ParisRomeItaly
  4. 4.The Geographical Societies of ParisLisbonPortugal
  5. 5.The Geographical Societies of ParisAmsterdamNetherlands
  6. 6.The Geographical Societies of ParisBrusselsBelgium
  7. 7.The Geographical Societies of ParisBuda-PestHungary
  8. 8.The Geographical Societies of ParisGenevaSwitzerland
  9. 9.The Geographical Societies of ParisNeuchatelSwitzerland
  10. 10.The Geographical Societies of ParisPhiladelphiaUSA
  11. 11.Commercial Geographical Society of ParisFrance

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