Advertisement

US and EU Strategies to Promote Democracy in Indonesia

  • Rachel Kleinfeld
Part of the Governance and Limited Statehood Series book series (GLS)

Abstract

Indonesia is a democratic success story. Since 1957, the world’s fourth most populous country and largest Muslim state, a major regional power and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, had been subject to autocratic rule. Indonesia had experimented with a unique duifungsi (dualpower) political system from the mid-1960s onward, in which power was jointly held between the military and an unelected civilian strongman with a handpicked parliament (Bhakti 2003). Despite authoritarianism and increasing corruption, the regime gained legitimacy in the West from its anti-Communist credentials, and at home from its economic performance, which transformed an impoverished nation into one of the renowned Asian Tigers of the 1990s.

Keywords

Democratic Transition Negative Incentive Democratic Consolidation Asia Foundation Judicial Commission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

Books, Articles

  1. The Asia Foundation (2001) “Executive Summary,” Second Semi-Annual report Institutional Development and Advocacy for Legal Reform in Indonesia (Grant No. 497-G-00-00-00058-00) March 2001–August 2001: 2–3.Google Scholar
  2. Berrigan, F. (2001) “Indonesia at the Crossroads: US Weapons Sales and Military Training.” World Policy Institute Special Report. New York: Arms Trade Resource Center.Google Scholar
  3. Bhakti, I. (2003) “The Transition to Democracy in Indonesia: Some Outstanding Problems” in J. Rolfe (ed.) The Asia-Pacific: A Region in Transition. Honolulu: HI: The Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies: 196–9.Google Scholar
  4. Crawford, G. (2003) “Partnership or Power? Deconstructing the Partnership for Governance Reform in Indonesia.” Third World Quarterly, 24(1): 139–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Diamond, L. and M. F. Plattner (eds) (2001) “Introduction.” The Global Divergence of Democracies. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press: 18.Google Scholar
  6. DuRette, J. and G. Slocum (2001) “The Role Of Transition Assistance: The Case Of Indonesia.” Working Paper No. 323. Washington: USAID Center for Development Information and Evaluation.Google Scholar
  7. Gelling, P. (2007) “New Report Sheds Light on 2002 Papua Shooting,” International Herald Tribune, April 8.Google Scholar
  8. Hadiz, V. R. (2003) “Reorganizing Political Power in Indonesia: a Reconsideration of So-Called ‘Democratic Transitions’.” The Pacific Review, 16 (4): 591–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Haseman, J. B. and E. Lachica (2005) “Towards a Stronger US-Indonesian Security Relationship.” Washington DC: United States-Indonesia Society: 16, 31.Google Scholar
  10. King, B. A. (2004) “Empowering the Presidency: Interests and Perceptions in Indonesia’s Constitutional Reforms, 1999–2002,” Unpublished dissertation, Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  11. Liddle, W. R. (2001) “Indonesia in 2000: A Shaky Start for Democracy.” Asian Survey 41(1): 208–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Linz, J. and A. Stepan (1996) Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Mallarangeng, A. and P. V. Tuijl (2004) “Breaking New Ground or Dressing-Up in the Emperor’s New Clothes? A Response to a Critical Review.” Third World Quarterly, 25(5): 919–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pomper, M. A. (2000) “Battle Lines Keep Shifting Over Foreign Military Training,” Congressional Quarterly Weekly, January 29.Google Scholar
  15. Sanger, D. E. (1995) “Real Politics: Why Suharto Is In and Castro Is Out,” The New York Times, October 31.Google Scholar
  16. Steinberg, D. I. and C. P. F. Luhulima (1994) “On Democracy: Strengthening Legislative, Legal, Press Institutions, and Polling in Indonesia,” The AsiaGoogle Scholar
  17. Foundation Final Evaluation. Washington, DC: USAID: 5, 9, 11, 12, 34, 38, 39.Google Scholar
  18. Webber, D. (2006), “A Consolidated Patrimonial Democracy? Democratization in Post-Suharto Indonesia,” Democratization, 13(3), 396–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Weiner, T. (1998) “Unrest in Indonesia: The Opposition; US Has Spent $26 Million Since ′95 on Suharto Opponents,” The New York Times, May 20Google Scholar
  20. Wenseslau, M., Sunudyantoro, and W. R. Mogul (2005) “Argument on Capitol Hill,” Tempo, 5, March 8–14Google Scholar
  21. Wiranto (2003) “Witness to the Storm.” Jakarta: Delta Pustaka Express Official documentsGoogle Scholar
  22. Council of the European Union (2000) General Affairs: Conclusions of the 2249th Council Meeting.Google Scholar
  23. Wenseslau, M., Sunudyantoro, and W. R. Mogul (2001) Indonesia: Council Conclusion, General Affairs and External Relations Council.Google Scholar
  24. Wenseslau, M., Sunudyantoro, and W. R. Mogul (2003) Indonesia: Council Conclusion, General Affairs and External Relations Council.Google Scholar
  25. European Commission (1994) Towards a New Asia Strategy, Communication from the Commission to the Council, COM(1994), 314: 1.Google Scholar
  26. Wenseslau, M., Sunudyantoro, and W. R. Mogul (2000) Developing Closer Relations Between Indonesia and the European Union, COM(2000) 50-C5-0288/2000-2000/2152 COS: 1, 10–12, 15, 18, 20.Google Scholar
  27. Wenseslau, M., Sunudyantoro, and W. R. Mogul (2005) National Indicative Program for Indonesia.Google Scholar
  28. Wenseslau, M., Sunudyantoro, and W. R. Mogul Indonesia Country Strategy Paper, 2002–2006: 20, 24.Google Scholar
  29. Wenseslau, M., Sunudyantoro, and W. R. Mogul National Indicative Program 2005–2006 Indonesia: 26, 40.Google Scholar
  30. European Parliament (2000) Resolution on the Communication from the Commission to the Council and to the European Parliament on Developing Closer Relations between Indonesia and the European Union, 20.Google Scholar
  31. Indonesian Law No. 34/2004.Google Scholar
  32. Ramage, D. (2005) “ Indonesia in Transition: Recent Developments and Implication s for US Policy,” Hearing before the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, House Committee on International Relations, 109th Congress, First Session, March 10.Google Scholar
  33. United States Agency for International Development (1996) R4 Indonesia: 36.Google Scholar
  34. United States Congress (FY 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, and 1996) Foreign Operations Appropriations Acts.Google Scholar
  35. United States Congress House Committee on International Relations (2005) “Indonesia in Transition: Recent Developments and Implications for US Policy,” Hearing before the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, 109th Congress, First Session, March 10.Google Scholar
  36. US Department of State (2005) “Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2000 to 2004.” Washington DC: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor: 1.Google Scholar
  37. United States House Concurrent Resolution (1991) “Condemning the Massacre of East Timorese Civilians by the Indonesian Military,” November 14.Google Scholar

Internet resources

  1. BBC News (2000). EU Lifts Arms Embargo on Indonesia, January 17. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/607230.stm, date accessed June 20, 2008.
  2. Human Rights Watch (2002) Justice Denied for East Timor, Backgrounder, December 20. Available at www.hrw.org/backgrounder/asia/timor/etimor1202bg.htm, date accessed July 14, 2008.
  3. Library of Congress (2007) Indonesia: Area Handbook Series Glossary, Available from: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/indonesia/ id_glos.html, date accessed June 5, 2008.
  4. National Endowment for Democracy (2008) Variety of Actors, Programs, Supports Change in Indonesia. Available from: www.ned.org/About/multisectoral.html, date accessed July 13, 2008.
  5. Patra, A. and M. Zen (2002) Indonesian Legal Aid Foundation: Struggling for Democracy and Its Own Stability. Available from: www.hurights.or.jp/asia-pacific/no_38/02.htm, date accessed July 3, 2008.

Authors interviews

  1. (All interviews took place in Jakarta, Indonesia, July 2005. Because some Indonesians use only one name, at times only one name is provided.)Google Scholar
  2. Ibrahim Assegaf, Executive Director of Hukom Online.Google Scholar
  3. Bivinty, Executive Director of PSHK.Google Scholar
  4. Professor Gumilar, Dean of Social Science and Political Faculty at University of Indonesia.Google Scholar
  5. Zacky Husein, former Rule of Law Program Officer with the Asia Foundation.Google Scholar
  6. Ketut Yuli Kartika Inggas, European Commission Delegation to Indonesia, Program Officer in charge of EIDHR grant program.Google Scholar
  7. Gartini Isa, USAID Officer, Democracy and Governance.Google Scholar
  8. Cliff Keeling, ICITAP instructor, Jakarta.Google Scholar
  9. Agung Laksono, Speaker of the House.Google Scholar
  10. Agus Loekman, local Asia Foundation program officer.Google Scholar
  11. Elmar Lubis, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Department of EU Relations.Google Scholar
  12. Tudang Mulya Lubis one of the founders of the Indonesian Legal Aid Society.Google Scholar
  13. Ronan MacAongusa, First Secretary at European Commission Delegation.Google Scholar
  14. Novianty Manurung, EU Governance Officer.Google Scholar
  15. Herbin Marular, ICITAP Program Developer.Google Scholar
  16. Novianty interview.Google Scholar
  17. Sebastiaan Pompe, IMF Resident Legal Adviser, Indonesia.Google Scholar
  18. Marcellus Rantatena, Partnership for Governance Reform.Google Scholar
  19. Santiago, ICITAP Program Developer.Google Scholar
  20. Laksamana Sukardi, former Minister of State Owned Enterprise, in charge of privatization.Google Scholar
  21. Akbar Tadjung, former Speaker of the House.Google Scholar
  22. General Wiranto, former Defense Minister of Indonesia.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Rachel Kleinfeld 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rachel Kleinfeld
    • 1
  1. 1.Truman National Security ProjectUSA

Personalised recommendations