US and EU Strategies to Promote Democracy in Indonesia

  • Rachel Kleinfeld
Part of the Governance and Limited Statehood Series book series (GLS)


Indonesia is a democratic success story. Since 1957, the world’s fourth most populous country and largest Muslim state, a major regional power and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, had been subject to autocratic rule. Indonesia had experimented with a unique duifungsi (dualpower) political system from the mid-1960s onward, in which power was jointly held between the military and an unelected civilian strongman with a handpicked parliament (Bhakti 2003). Despite authoritarianism and increasing corruption, the regime gained legitimacy in the West from its anti-Communist credentials, and at home from its economic performance, which transformed an impoverished nation into one of the renowned Asian Tigers of the 1990s.


Democratic Transition Negative Incentive Democratic Consolidation Asia Foundation Judicial Commission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Books, Articles

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Authors interviews

  1. (All interviews took place in Jakarta, Indonesia, July 2005. Because some Indonesians use only one name, at times only one name is provided.)Google Scholar
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  3. Bivinty, Executive Director of PSHK.Google Scholar
  4. Professor Gumilar, Dean of Social Science and Political Faculty at University of Indonesia.Google Scholar
  5. Zacky Husein, former Rule of Law Program Officer with the Asia Foundation.Google Scholar
  6. Ketut Yuli Kartika Inggas, European Commission Delegation to Indonesia, Program Officer in charge of EIDHR grant program.Google Scholar
  7. Gartini Isa, USAID Officer, Democracy and Governance.Google Scholar
  8. Cliff Keeling, ICITAP instructor, Jakarta.Google Scholar
  9. Agung Laksono, Speaker of the House.Google Scholar
  10. Agus Loekman, local Asia Foundation program officer.Google Scholar
  11. Elmar Lubis, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Department of EU Relations.Google Scholar
  12. Tudang Mulya Lubis one of the founders of the Indonesian Legal Aid Society.Google Scholar
  13. Ronan MacAongusa, First Secretary at European Commission Delegation.Google Scholar
  14. Novianty Manurung, EU Governance Officer.Google Scholar
  15. Herbin Marular, ICITAP Program Developer.Google Scholar
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  17. Sebastiaan Pompe, IMF Resident Legal Adviser, Indonesia.Google Scholar
  18. Marcellus Rantatena, Partnership for Governance Reform.Google Scholar
  19. Santiago, ICITAP Program Developer.Google Scholar
  20. Laksamana Sukardi, former Minister of State Owned Enterprise, in charge of privatization.Google Scholar
  21. Akbar Tadjung, former Speaker of the House.Google Scholar
  22. General Wiranto, former Defense Minister of Indonesia.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Rachel Kleinfeld 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rachel Kleinfeld
    • 1
  1. 1.Truman National Security ProjectUSA

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