Introduction: American and European Strategies to Promote Democracy — Shared Values, Common Challenges, Divergent Tools?

  • Amichai Magen
  • Michael A. McFaul
Part of the Governance and Limited Statehood Series book series (GLS)


In June 2004, President George W. Bush tried to leverage the US chairmanship of the G-8 summit to launch the centerpiece of his Administration’s “forward strategy of freedom” for the post-9/11, post-Saddam Middle East. The new Mideast project would marshal American and European diplomatic and financial resources to press for greater social, political, and economic freedom from Marrakesh to Bangladesh. Well before G-8 leaders convened in Sea Island, Georgia, however, the Europeans (allegedly) leaked a draft of Bush’s proposal to the Arabic newspaper Al-Hayat and demanded far-reaching revisions as a condition for their support. Eventually, the G-8 did inaugurate what it dubbed the Broader Middle East and North Africa (BMENA) initiative, but in a much diluted form from the one originally hoped for by the White House. BMENA then promptly sank into low-profile obscurity.


Foreign Policy Middle East Economic Freedom Good Governance Liberal Democracy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Amichai Magen and Michael A. McFaul 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amichai Magen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael A. McFaul
    • 3
  1. 1.The Shalem CenterJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Hoover InstitutionStanford UniversityUSA
  3. 3.Freie Universität BerlinGermany

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