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Introduction

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Part of the Global Conflict and Security since 1945 book series (GCON)

Abstract

In the introduction to his 1997 book Parting the Curtain, Walter Hixson wrote that “no systematic study exists on the efforts to use propaganda and culture as a weapon in the Cold War.”1 While this may have been the case in 1997, since then a tremendous increase has occurred in the study of Cold War rhetoric and propaganda, including the use of propaganda as a weapon in the Cold War. Since 2006 major works have appeared on the role of propaganda in the foreign policy of the US Eisenhower Administration (1953–61), the development of Britain’s anti-Communist propaganda policy, and British and American propaganda policy toward the Middle East.2 These studies built on earlier work done in the United States and Britain, most notably the path-breaking work of Walter Hixson, Philip Taylor, and Scott Lucas, all of whom stressed the vital role ideology, propaganda, and culture played in the history of the Cold War.3

Keywords

Foreign Policy Central Intelligence Agency British Broadcasting Corporation Public Diplomacy Soviet Policy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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  1. 1.
    Walter Hixson, Parting the Curtain: Propaganda, Culture and the Cold War 1945–1961 (New York: St. Martin Griffin, 1997), p. x.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kenneth A. Osgood, Total Cold War: Eisenhower’s Secret Propaganda Battle at Home and Abroad (Lawrence, KA: University of Kansas Press, 2006)Google Scholar
  3. Andrew Defty, Britain, America, and Anti-Communist Propaganda 1945–1953: The Information Research Department (New York: Routledge, 2004)Google Scholar
  4. James Vaughan, The Failure of American and British Propaganda in the Middle East, 1945–1957: Unconquerable Minds (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 3.
    Hixson, Parting the Curtain; Philip M. Taylor, Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Era (Manchester: Patrick Stephens, 2003)Google Scholar
  6. Phillip M. Taylor, “Projection of Britain, 1945–1951,” in John Young and Michael Dockrill (eds), British Foreign Policy 1945–1956 (London: St. Martin Press, 1989)Google Scholar
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  8. Scott Lucas, Freedom’s War: The American Crusade against the Soviet Union (New York University Press, 1999)Google Scholar
  9. 4.
    John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (Oxford University Press, 1997)Google Scholar
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  11. 5.
    Douglas J. Macdonald makes this point in “Formal Ideologies in the Cold War: Toward a Framework for Empirical Analysis,” in Odd Arne Westad (ed.), Reviewing the Cold War (London: Frank Cass, 2000), p. 183.Google Scholar
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  13. Vojtech Mastny, The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity: The Stalin Years (Oxford University Press, 1996)Google Scholar
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  17. 9.
    William Rugh, “Fixing Public Diplomacy for Arab and Muslim Audiences,” in Adam Garfinkle (ed.), A Practical Guide to Winning the War on Terrorism (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 2004) pp. 145–62, and Derk Kinnane, “Winning Over the Muslim Mind,” The National Interest (Spring 2004), pp. 93–9.Google Scholar
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    On the American side see among others Hixson, Parting the Curtain; Scott Lucas, Freedom’s War; Thomas C. Sorensen, The Word War: The Story of American Propaganda (London: Harper and Row, 1968)Google Scholar
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  22. 13.
    Histories of the entire period of the Cold War include Richard Crockatt, The Fifty Years War: The United States and the Soviet Union in World Politics 1941–1991 (New York: Routledge, 1995)Google Scholar
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  31. 14.
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  32. 16.
    James Vaughan, “Cloak Without Dagger: How the Information Research Department Fought Britain’s Cold War in the Middle East 1948–1956,” Cold War Histoty, vol. 4 (2004) no. 3, pp. 56–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  34. 17.
    On the early years of the CIA see Evan Thomas, The Very Best Men: Four Who Dared: The Early Years of the CIA (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995)Google Scholar
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  39. 18.
    Literature on the Psychological Strategy Board includes Scott Lucas, “Campaigns of Truth: The Psychological Strategy Board and American Ideology, 1951–1953,” The International Historical Review, vol. 18 (1996) no. 2 and Mitrovich, Undermining the Kremlin, pp. 59–82.Google Scholar
  40. 19.
    On Eisenhower and propaganda see Osgood, Total Cold War; Blanche Wiesen Cook, The Declassified Eisenhower: A Divided Legacy (Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1984)Google Scholar
  41. John Allen Stern, Propaganda in the Employ of Democracy: Fighting The Cold War With Words (PhD thesis, State University of New York, Stony Brook, 2002). Eisenhower’s use of rhetoric is analysed in Shawn J. Parry-Giles, The Rhetorical Presidency, Propaganda, and the Cold War, 1945–1955 (Westport, CT: Praeger Publications, 2002)Google Scholar
  42. Parry Giles, “The Eisenhower Administration’s Conception of the USIA: The Development of Overt and Covert Propaganda Strategies,” Presidential Studies Quarterly, vol. 24 (Spring 1994), 263–76.Google Scholar
  43. 20.
    Three volumes of Asa Briggs’s five-volume work on the history of the BBC discuss the BBC Russia Service: Asa Briggs, The History of the Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: Volume III: The War of Words (London: Oxford University Press, 1970); The History of the Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: Volume IV: Sound and Vision (London: Oxford University Press, 1979); The History of the Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: Volume V: Competition (London: Oxford University Press, 1995)Google Scholar
  44. See also Gerard Mansell, Let the Truth Be Told: 50 Years of BBC External Broadcasting (London: Weidenfeld, 1982).Google Scholar
  45. A history of short-wave broadcasting in the Cold War can be found in Michael Nelson, War of the Black Heavens: The Battles of Western Broadcasting in the Cold War (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997).Google Scholar
  46. Also see Gary D. Rawnsley, Radio Diplomacy and Propaganda: The BBC and Voice of America in International Politics, 1956–1964 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996), pp. 6–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 21.
    The general relationship between the BBC and the IRD has been discussed in Lyn Smith, “Covert British Propaganda: The Information Research Department, 1947–1977,” Millennium: Journal of International Studies, vol. 9 (1980) no. 1, pp. 67–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Scott Lucas and C. J. Morris, “A Very British Crusade: The Information Research Department and the Beginning of the Cold War,” in Richard Aldrich (ed.), British Intelligence, Strategy and the Cold War (London: Routledge, 1992); and Lashmar and Oliver, Britain’s Secret Propaganda War.Google Scholar
  49. 22.
    For the early years of Voice of America see Holly Cowan Shulman, The Voice of America: Propaganda and Democracy, 1941–1945 (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990)Google Scholar
  50. Robert W. Pirstein, The Voice of America: A History of the International Broadcasts of the United States Government 1940–1962 (PhD thesis, Northwestern University, 1970)Google Scholar
  51. Henderson, The United States Information Agency; and Alan L. Heil, Voice of America: A History (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003).Google Scholar
  52. 23.
    James Critchlow, Radio-Hole-In-The-Head: Radio Liberty: An Insider’s Story of Cold War Broadcasting (Washington, DC: American University Press, 1995)Google Scholar
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  57. 24.
    Victor Rosenberg, Soviet-American Relations, 1953–1960: Diplomacy and Cultural Exchange During the Eisenhower Presidency (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2005)Google Scholar
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  59. 26.
    Robert English, Russia and the Idea of the West: Gorbachev, Intellectuals and the End of the Cold War (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  60. 27.
    The scope of this book encompasses the years of 1945–60 so it does not include the efforts at cultural infiltration of the Détente years of the 1970s. On this topic see James Mayall and Cornelia Navari (eds), The End of the Post War Era: Documents on Great-Power Relations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980)Google Scholar
  61. Vojtech Mastny, Helsinki, Human Rights, and European Security (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1985)Google Scholar
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  64. 30.
    English, Russia and the Idea of the West; Raymond Garthoff, The Great Transition: American—Soviet Relations and the End of the Cold War (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1994)Google Scholar
  65. Archie Brown, The Gorbachev Factor (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996)Google Scholar
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  67. 32.
    Garth Jowett and Victoria O’Donnell, Propaganda and Persuasion (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1999), p. 6. A large number of scholars have attempted to define the term “propaganda.”Google Scholar
  68. See for example Jacques Ellul, Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes (New York: Knopf, 1965)Google Scholar
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    Phillip M. Taylor, British Propaganda in the Twentieth Century: Selling Democracy (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), p. 196.Google Scholar
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    Sir Robert Marett, Through The Back Door: An Inside View of Britain’s Overseas Information Services (London: Pergamon Press, 1968), pp. 148–52.Google Scholar
  73. 41.
    Harold Lasswell, Propaganda Techniques in the World War (New York: Knopf, 1927)Google Scholar
  74. J. D. Squires, British Propaganda at Home and in the United States from 1914–1917 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1935).Google Scholar
  75. 50.
    Robert C. Tucker, The Psychological Factor in Soviet Foreign Policy (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, RM-1881, 1957).Google Scholar
  76. 51.
    The size of the Soviet defense budget and the share of the total Soviet economy devoted to defense spending was a constant source of controversy during the Cold War. In general, Soviet records now available indicate the CIA did an adequate job estimating the Soviet defense budget but overestimated the size of the Soviet economy, especially in the 1970s and 1980s. For the CIA view of this issue see Noel E. Firth and James H. Noren, Soviet Defense Spending: A History of CIA Estimates, 1950–1990 (College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1998)Google Scholar
  77. Criticism of CIA estimates can be found in Abraham C. Becker, “Intelligence Fiasco or Reasoned Accounting? CIA Estimates of Soviet GDP,” Post-Soviet Affairs, vol. 10 (1994), pp. 291–329Google Scholar
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  79. 52.
    For an interesting study of the role the Soviet Union’s unique ideology and social construction played in its interaction with the international system, see Richard Saull, Rethinking the History of the Cold War: The State, Military Power, and Social Revolution (London: Routledge, 2000).Google Scholar
  80. 54.
    William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era (New York: W. W. Norton, 2003), p. xx.Google Scholar
  81. 56.
    On the end of the Gulag prison system see Anne Applebaum, Gulag: A History (New York: Anchor Books, 2003), pp. 506–26.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Lowell H. Schwartz 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.RAND CorporationUSA

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