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Introduction: Evolving Security Discourse and Crises in Africa: Conceptual, Policy, and Practical Relevance

  • Jack Mangala
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Abstract

Since the end of the Cold War, there has been a broadening of the security concept and framework in two fundamental directions. In the first direction, the range of threats traditionally considered relevant to national security has been expanded to include issues such as forced migration of populations, terrorism, diseases, food insecurity, and the impacts of climate change. This reconceptualization effort is aimed at making nonmilitary threats an integral part of a national security discourse and policy that takes into account the evolving nature of potential threats that nation-states face in today’s world. In reaction to the traditional state-centric approach to security, a second direction emphasizes the needs and well-being of humans as primary referents of security. This has been the central focus and contribution of the concept of human security.

Keywords

Food Insecurity National Security Security Council United Nations Development Program African State 
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Notes

  1. 1.
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    Barry Buzan, People, States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era (New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991), 112.Google Scholar
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    See, inter alia, Ole Waever et al., Identity, Migration and the new Security Agenda in Europe (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993).Google Scholar
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    Rob McRae, “Human Security in a Globalized World,” in Rob McRae and Don Hubert, eds., Human Security and the New Diplomacy: Protecting People, Promoting Peace (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2001), 15.Google Scholar
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    See Timothy Murithi, The African Union: Pan-Aficanis, Peacebuilding and Development (Adershot: Ashgate, 2005).Google Scholar
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    Tanzania’s deputy home affairs minister E. Mwambulukutu spelled out the new security approach toward refugees in a 1996 speech: “Hosting refugees has become a heavier and more painful burden than ever before to countries of asylum like Tanzania. Protecting and assisting refugees has brought new risks to national security, exacerbated tensions between states and caused extensive damage to the environment.” Quoted in Augistine Mahiga, “A Change of Direction for Tanzania,” Refugees, No. 110 (1997): 15.Google Scholar

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© Jack Mangala 2010

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  • Jack Mangala

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