What Happened to Mary’s Councilors?

  • Ralph Houlbrooke
Part of the Queenship and Power book series (QAP)


England experienced between 1547 and 1559 an exceptional series of changes of regime and religious policy. Each reign saw the dismantling of an existing religious settlement, the removal of senior clergy who could not accept the new order, and extensive changes to privy council personnel. No-one at the time could have predicted that Elizabeth’s settlement would endure (albeit with one major interruption and subsequent major modifications) until the twenty-first century. English Catholics continued to hope, not unreasonably, for further changes following Elizabeth’s marriage or the accession of a new monarch.


Early Supporter Religious Conservative Intercessory Prayer Original Letter Parish Church 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    See Eamon Duffy, Fires of Faith: Catholic England under Mary Tudor (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2009), 194–203 for a recent concise account.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jennifer Loach, Parliament and the Crown in the Reign of Mary Tudor (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986): 7–10;Google Scholar
  3. Robert Wingfield of Brantham, “The Vita Mariae Angliae Reginae of Robert Wingfield of Brantham,” ed. Diarmaid MacCulloch, Camden Miscellany 28 (Camden Society, 4th series, 29, 1984): 251–69.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Diarmaid MacCulloch, Suffolk and the Tudors: Politics and Religion in an English County1500–1600 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986), 84–7;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alison Wall, Power and Protest in England, 1525–1640 (London: Arnold, 2000), 49–50.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    Wallace MacCaffrey, The Shaping of the Elizabethan Regime (London: Jonathan Cape, 1969), 30, 33;Google Scholar
  7. David Starkey, Elizabeth: Apprenticeship (London: Chatto & Windus, 2000), 240, 246–7;Google Scholar
  8. Dale Hoak, “Two Revolutions in Tudor Government: The Formation and Organization of Mary I’s Privy Council,” in Revolution Reassessed: Revisions in the History of Tudor Government and Administration, ed. Christopher Coleman and David Starkey (Oxford: Clavendon Press, 1986), 114–15;Google Scholar
  9. Dale Hoak, The King’s Council in the Reign of Edward VI (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), 78–9.Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    David Loades, The Life and Career of William Paulet (c. 1475–1572): Lord Treasurer and First Marquis of Winchester (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008).Google Scholar
  11. 12.
    F. G. Emmison, Tudor Secretary: Sir William Petre at Court and Home (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1961); CP, X: 506; TNA SP 12/16, fol. 28; Diocesan Returns of Recusants for England and Wales, 1577, in Miscellanea, XII, Catholic Record Society Publications, 22 (1921): 49.Google Scholar
  12. 17.
    A Collection of Original Letters from the Bishops to the Privy Council, 1564, ed. M. Bateson, Camden new series, 53 (1895): 56;Google Scholar
  13. R. H. Fritze, “The Role of Family and Religion in the Local Politics of Early Elizabethan England: The case of Hampshire in the 1560s,” HJ, 25 (1982): 267–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 20.
    Samuel Rhea Gammon, Statesman and Schemer: William, First Lord Paget— Tudor Minister (Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1973), esp. 239–40; CSPSp Elizabeth, 1:8.Google Scholar
  15. 21.
    Natalie Mears, Queenship and Political Discourse in the Elizabethan Realms (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), esp. 40–50; TNA, SP 12/12, fol. 1; MacCaffrey, Shaping of the Regime, 63.Google Scholar
  16. 23.
    Michael Questier, Catholicism and Community in Early Modern England: Politics, Aristocratic Patronage and Religion, c. 1550–1640 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 109–49;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Proceedings in the Parliaments of Elizabeth I, ed. T E. Hartley, 3 vols. (London and New York: Leicester University Press, 1981–95), I: 1558–81, 7–11.Google Scholar
  18. 24.
    CSPSp Elizabeth, I: 407; II: 218; Roger B. Manning, Religion and Society in Elizabethan Sussex: A Study of the Enforcement of the Religious Settlement 1558–1603 (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1969), 221–37.Google Scholar
  19. 34.
    P. McGrath and J. Rowe, “The Recusancy of Sir Thomas Cornwallis,” Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology, 28 (1958–60), 226–71; TNA, SP 12/43, fols.27–30.Google Scholar
  20. 35.
    TNA, SP 12/60, fols. 171–6; Ann Weikel, “The Rise and Fall of a Marian Privy Councillor: Sir Henry Bedingfield, 1509/11–1585,” Norfolk Archaeology, 40 (1987–9): 73–83, esp. 80; Diocesan Returns, 1577, 54.Google Scholar
  21. 44.
    TNA, SP 12/33, fols. 109–10; A.J. Loomie, The Spanish Elizabethans (London: Burns and Oates, 1963): 14–51.Google Scholar
  22. 51.
    TNA, SP 12/16, fol. 39; Neville Williams, Thomas Howard Fourth Duke of Norfolk (London: Barrie and Rockliff, 1964), 179–88.Google Scholar
  23. 54.
    G. R. Elton, “Tudor Government: The Points of Contact, 2: The Council,” TRHS, 5th ser., 25 (1975): 195–211.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Anna Whitelock and Alice Hunt 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph Houlbrooke

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations