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The Process of Inclusion

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Abstract

The historical study of higher education in the nineteenth century is prolific. In both the United States and the United Kingdom there were numerous changes in legislation and policy that revolutionized the nature of university education, primarily by opening it to a wider section of the public. Previously, institutions on both sides of the Atlantic were intended for the elite, the sons of wealthy citizens who were born to a social class that included higher education in its expectations. Beginning in the eighteenth century, there were new philosophies of democracy and equality emerging that encouraged access to all levels of schooling for all members of society. Women in both countries who desired higher education often argued that they could make worthy contributions to society outside the home, if they were only given the chance. By the nineteenth century, women in several countries began to take on new societal roles. One of the most significant of these was the introduction of women to higher education. Although many advances were adopted slowly, by the early twentieth century women were allowed into most fields of study and were able to work toward the same degrees as men.

Keywords

High Education Nineteenth Century Female Student Woman Student Victorian Society 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Many colleges and universities that are comprehensive in the twenty-first century provided a more limited curriculum in the nineteenth century.” While the education provided at institutions that focused on agriculture and mechanical subjects or at normal schools that provided teacher training is extremely important to the overall history of higher education, it is not the purpose of this book. For more on these institutions see Christine A. Ogren, The American State Normal School:” An Instrument of Great Good” (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 6.
    Isaac N. Demmon, ed., History of the University of Michigan, by the Late Burke A. Hinsdale, with Biographical Sketches of the P egents and Members of the University Senate fiom 1837 to 1906 (Ann Arbor, MI: Published by the University, 1906), 59.Google Scholar
  3. 11.
    For more see Kachel Holmes, The Secret Life of Dr. James Barry: Victorian England’s Most Eminent Surgeon (Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing, 2007).Google Scholar
  4. 13.
    Six institutions in particular are referred to as” red-brick” universities. These are the Universities of Birmingham, Bristol, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, and Sheffield. For more see Edgar Allison Peers, Redbrick University P evisited (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1996).Google Scholar
  5. 16.
    John M. Hall, England: An Account of Past and Contemporary Conditions and Progress (Detroit: Bay View Reading Club, 1906), 125.Google Scholar
  6. 18.
    Katharine Lake, ed., Memorials of William Charles Lake, Dean of Durham 1869–1894 (London: Edward Arnold, 1901), 129.Google Scholar
  7. 20.
    J. T. Fowler, Durham University: Earlier Voundations and Present Colleges (London: F. E. Robinson, 1904), 119.Google Scholar
  8. 22.
    Emily Janes, The Englishwoman’s Year Book and Directory 1900 (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1900), 5.Google Scholar
  9. 103.
    John Malcolm Bulloch, A History of the University of Aberdeen 1495–1895 (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1895), 209.Google Scholar
  10. William Watt, A History of Aberdeen and Banf.’(Edinbu rgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1900), 386.Google Scholar
  11. 111.
    James Coutts, A History of the University of Glasgow: From its Foundation in 1451 to 1909 (Glasgow: J. Maclehose and Sons, 1909), 458.Google Scholar
  12. 118.
    Graham Balfour, The Educational Systems of Great Britain and Ireland (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1898), 303Google Scholar
  13. 122.
    James B. Sellers, History of the University of Alabama (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1953), 474.Google Scholar
  14. 136.
    Dunbar Rowland, The Official and Statistical P egister of the State of Mississippi 1912 (Nashville, TN: Brandon Printing Company, 1912), 219.Google Scholar
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    David G. Sansing, The University of Mississippi: A Sesquicentennial History (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1999), 136–137Google Scholar

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© Christine D. Myers 2010

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