Advertisement

Peace Psychology in a Poor World: Conflict Transformation in Response to Poverty

Chapter
  • 191 Downloads

Abstract

What kinds of conflicts do individuals, communities, and countries go through under debilitating conditions that are exacerbated by poverty? How can peace be attained in circumstances of economic hardship? The answers to these questions will be discussed in the analyses of a Southeast Asian country, the Philippines, where there is persistent poverty and protracted conflict in the political, military, religious, and ethnic arenas, which, consequently, has led to further strife and socioeconomic inequalities. Micro-conflicts (intrapersonal and interpersonal) and meso-conflict s will be discussed, specifically in the psychological experience of the struggle. Efforts to transform and transcend will be reviewed, as well as peacebuilding and peace education.

Keywords

Conflict Resolution American Psychological Association Emotional Climate Structural Violence Structural Conflict 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

Resources

  1. Culture of Peace News and Media Network: http://www.cpnn.org/.
  2. This network is run by volunteers and provides multilingual, up-to-date coverage of news and media promoting a culture of peace.Google Scholar
  3. Grameen Foundation: Stop Poverty Now: http://www.stoppovertynow.org/?gclid=COn32N fDsJkCFQLixgod0xR76A.
  4. Innovations for Poverty Action: http://poverty-action.org/.
  5. International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution (ICCR): http://www.tc.edu/icccr/.
  6. International Conflict Resolution Centre: www.psych.unimelb.edu.au/ICRC.
  7. The International Conflict Resolution Centre is a thriving interdisciplinary learning community committed to the development of cultures of peace. It is based at the University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
  8. International Year of the Culture of Peace: http://www3.unesco.org/iycp/.
  9. This site is part of the main UNESCO website and deals with continuing the global movement toward creating cultures of peace.Google Scholar
  10. Peace Brigades International: http://www.peacebrigades.org/.
  11. Psychologists for Peace, Interest Group of the Australian Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  12. Psychologists for Social Responsibility: http://psysr.org/.
  13. Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict, and Violence: Peace Psychology Division of the American Psychological Association: http://www.webster.edu/peacepsychology/.

Suggested Reading

  1. Blumberg, H. H., Hare, A. P., & Costin, A. (2006). Peace psychology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. This book discusses the trends in peace psychology by looking into the interdisciplinary practices in peace, the primary psychological practice of peace, the core topics in peace and environmental studies, and terrorism.Google Scholar
  3. Borisoff, D., & Victor, D. A. (1998). Conflict management: A communication skills approach. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  4. This book provides a communication skills approach to managing conflict. It defines conflict and identifies the communication skills required for effective conflict management and exposes the readers to conflict in specific contexts.Google Scholar
  5. Brainard, L., & Chollet, D. (Eds.). (2007). Too poor for peace? Global poverty, conflict, and security in the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  6. This book explores the battle against global poverty by discussing the lessons and theoretical framework needed to improve economic conditions and physical security in the world.Google Scholar
  7. Cahn, D. D., & Abigail, R. A. (2007). Managing conflict through communication. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  8. This book’s extensive use of narratives and case studies gives practical applications to a strong theoretical and research foundation that help students understand conflict and deal effectively with it.Google Scholar
  9. Christie, D. J., Wagner, R. V., & Winter, D. A. (Eds.). (2001). Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st Century. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  10. This book is a comprehensive discussion on peace psychology that discusses examples of direct violence, structural violence, ways of peacemaking, and peacebuilding. It has been available without cost at http://academic.marion.ohio-state.edu/dchristie/Peace Psychology Book.html.Google Scholar
  11. de Rivera, J. (Ed.). (2009). Handbook on building cultures of peace. New York: Springer Science.Google Scholar
  12. This book specifies the necessary elements to creating cultures of peace. Using an international and interdisciplinary perspective and involving developed and developing worlds, this handbook illustrates using peace-based values on the individual, community, national, and global levels.Google Scholar
  13. Hubble, M. A., Duncan, B. L., & Miller, S. D. (1999). The heart and soul of change. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. This book discusses outcome research that identifies what factors in psychotherapy enable change to happen in people’s lives. The book covers empirical foundations, the four classes of “common factors” responsible for therapeutic outcome, special applications of the common factors, and their financial and practical implications for the field of psychotherapy.Google Scholar
  15. MacNair, R. (2003). The psychology of peace. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  16. This book is a survey of peace psychology and provides an introduction for general readers or students. This is an informed discussion of the psychological causes and effects of violence and nonviolence that ranges from the interpersonal to the international level.Google Scholar
  17. MacNair, R. M., & Psychologists for Social Responsibility. (2006). Working for peace: A handbook of practical psychology and other tools. Atascadero, CA: Impact.Google Scholar
  18. This book explores the psychological aspects of peace and is a guidebook to social activism. It offers detailed practical guidance on getting yourself together, maintaining an effective group of volunteers, and getting the word out to the larger community.Google Scholar
  19. Ore, T. E. (2009). The social construction of difference and inequality: Race, class, gender, and sexuality. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  20. This book examines the social construction of race, class, gender, and sexuality and the institutional bases for these relations. It is a discussion of how such systems of stratification are formed and perpetuated, how they are interconnected, and how we may be involved in this perpetuation.Google Scholar
  21. Ramsbotham, O., Woodhouse, T., & Miall, H. (2005). Contemporary conflict resolution: The prevention, management and transformation of deadly conflicts. Cambridge, UK: Polity.Google Scholar
  22. This book narrates the development of the field from its pioneers to its contemporary proponents and identifies the achievements and challenges it faces in today’s environment. The authors argue that a new form of conflict resolution is emerging, which offers a hopeful means for human societies to transcend and celebrate their differences.Google Scholar
  23. Rosenberg, M. B. (2005). Speak peace in a world of conflict: What you say next will change the world. Encinitas, CA: PuddleDancer.Google Scholar
  24. This book deepens one’s understanding of mediation by offering practical strategies in transforming conflict. The book includes the mechanics of speaking peace, applying nonviolent communication, and speaking peace for social change.Google Scholar

Works Cited

  1. Abrera-Mangahas, M. A. (1998). Violence against women migrant workers: The Philippines experience. In B. V Carino (Ed.), Filipino workers on the move: Trends, dilemmas and policy options (pp. 45–80). Philippine Migration Research Network: UNESCO-MOST.Google Scholar
  2. ABS-CBN Foundation, Inc. (N.d.). Sagip Kapamilya. ABS-CBN Foundation. Retrievedjuly 19, 2009, from http://www.abs-cbnfoundation.com/.
  3. Akwani, O. (2008) President Gloria Arroyo: The embattled leader of the Philippines. IM Diversity. Retrieved July 19, 2009 from http://www.imdiversity.com/Villages/Global/ Global_Politics/GloriaArroyo.asp.
  4. Alberto, T. (2007). Mall bomb blast kills 8, hurts more than 100. Agence France-Presse. Inquirer. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/nation/view_ article.php?article_id=95462.
  5. American Psychological Association. (2009). Mission statement. APA. Retrievedjuly 19, 2009, from http://www.apa.org/about/.
  6. Bar-Tal, D., Halperin, E., & de Rivera, J. (2007). Collective emotions in conflict situations: Societal implications. Journal of Social Issues, 63(2), 441–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Basabe, N., & Valencia, J. (2007). Culture of peace: Sociocultural dimensions, cultural values, and emotional climate. Journal of Social Issues, 63(2), 405–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. BBC News. (2006). Emergency declared in Philippines. BBC News. Retrievedjuly 19, 2009, from http://news.bbc.co.Uk/l/hi/world/asia-pacific/4745716.stm.
  9. Charmaz, K. (2000). Grounded theory: Objectivist and constructivist methods. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 509–536). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Christie, D. J., Wagner, R. V, & Winter, D. A. (2001). Introduction to peace psychology. In, D. J. Christie, R. V Wagner, & D. A. Winter (Eds.), Peace, Conflict, and Violence: Peace Psychology for the 21st Century (pp. 1–14). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  11. Clake-Habibi, S. (2005). Transforming worldviews: The case of education for peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Journal of Transformative Education, 3(1), 33–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Conde, C. H. (2007). Blast at mall kills 8 in Philippines. The New York Times, October 20, 2007. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/20/world/ asia/20phils.html.
  13. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (1990). Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qualitative Sociology, 13(1), 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Denzin, N. K. (2003). The practices and politics of interpretation. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Collecting and interpreting qualitative materials (2nd ed., pp. 458–498). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. de Rivera, J. H. (2004). Assessing the basis for a culture of peace in contemporary societies. Journal of Peace Research, 41(5), 531–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. de Rivera, J., & Páez, D. (2007). Emotional climate, human security, and cultures of peace. Journal of Social Issues, 63(2), 233–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. de Rivera, J., Kurrien, R., & Olsen, N. (2007). The emotional climate of nations and their culture of peace. Journal of Social Issues, 63(2), 255–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deutsch, M. (1993). Educating for a peaceful world. American Psychologist, 48(5), 510–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Deutsch, M., Coleman, P. T., & Marcus, E. C. (2006). The handbook of conflict resolution: Theory and practice (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  20. Diener, E., & Tov, W. (2007). Subjective wellbeing and peace. Journal of Social Issues, 63(2), 421–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Galtung, J. (1969). Violence, peace and peace research. Journal of Peace Research, 6(3), 167–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. —. (2004). Transcend and tranform: An introduction to conflict work. London: Pluto.Google Scholar
  23. Gawad Kalinga. Gawad Kalinga programs. Gawad Kalinga. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from http:// www.gawadkalinga.org/whatisgk.htm.
  24. Gilman, R. (1983). Structural violence. Can we find genuine peace in a world with inequitable distribution of wealth among nations? The Foundations of Peace, 4(Autumn 1983), 8. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from http://www.context.org/ICLIB/IC04/Gilmanl.htm.Google Scholar
  25. Guba, E. G, & Lincoln, Y. S. (1989). Fourth generation evaluation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  26. Guerrero, S. H. (1973). The “culture of poverty” in Metro Manila: Some preliminary notes. Philippine Sociological Review, 21, 215–221.Google Scholar
  27. Hunger, poverty on the rise. (April 7, 2001). Philippine Star, 15, 253.Google Scholar
  28. Kimmel, P. R. (1985). Learning about peace: Choices and the U.S. Institute of Peace as seen from two different perspectives. American Psychologist, 40(5), 538–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kincheloe, J. L., & McLaren, P. (1994). Rethinking critical theory and qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 138–157). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  30. King, M. L. (1964). The quest for peace and justice. Nobel Prize. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1964/king-lecture.html.
  31. Klare, M. (1998). The era of multiplying schisms: World security in the twenty-first century. In M. Klare & Y Chandrini (Eds.), World security: Challenges for a new century (pp. 59–77). New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  32. Lederach, J. P. (2003). Conflict transformation. Retrieved July 19, 2009, http://www.beyond-intractability.org/essay/transformation/.
  33. Lincoln, Y S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  34. Lykes, M. B., Beristain, C. M., & Pérez-Armiñan, M. L. C. (2007). Political violence, impunity, and emotional climate in Maya communities. Journal of Social Issues, 63(2), 369–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mcintosh, P. I. (1989). On the invisibility of privilege. Mcintosh Privilege Questionnaire. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from http://www.mdcbowen.org/p2/rm/mcintosh.html.
  36. Meadows, D. (1990;2005). Stateofthevillagereport. SustainabilityInstitute. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from http://www.sustainer.org/dhm_archive/index.php?display_article=vn338villageed.
  37. Meinardus, R. (June 6, 2003). War without end in southern Philippines. Liberal Times. Retrieved July 19, 2009.Google Scholar
  38. National Statistics Office, Republic of the Philippines. (2000). 2000 Family Income and Expenditures Survey (FIES). Final release on poverty. National Statistics Office. Retrieved July 19, 2009.Google Scholar
  39. Puerto, L. A. (October 31, 2005). Convicts confirm Abu Sayyaf sanctuary. Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. From Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from http://www.accessm-ylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286–9858230_ITM.
  40. Rabow, J., Berkman, S., & Kessler, R. (1983). The culture of poverty and learned helplessness: A social psychological perspective. Sociological Inquiry, 53(4), 419–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Raposas, T. (2000). Cooperatives: Changing the lives of women. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from http://www.cyberdyaryo.com/features/f2000_1031_02.htm.
  42. Rosenberg, M. (2005). Nonviolent communication: A language of life. Encinitas, CA: PuddleDancer Press.Google Scholar
  43. Rufo, A. (2007). Legal community welcomes Erap Verdict. Newsbreak. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from http://newsbreak.com.ph/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=3710&Itemid=88889439&ed=27.
  44. Synergos. (2004). Leadership for peace and prosperity in Mindanao. A new learning and training initiative enables Filipinos to work together and overcome long-standing societal divides. Synergos Institute. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from http://www.synergos.org/04/aimmirant-bridging.htm.
  45. Tuason, M. T. (2008). Those who were born poor: A qualitative study of Philippine poverty. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55(2), 158–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. (2002). Sustainable social development in a period of rapid globalization: Challenges, opportunities, and policy options [Population and social integration section], UNESCAP. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from http://www.unescap.org/esid/psis/publications/theme2002/chap2.asp.Google Scholar
  47. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (1995). UNESCO and a culture of peace: Promoting a global movement. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.Google Scholar
  48. —. (1999). A Declaration on a culture of peace. UNESCO. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from http://www.unesco.org/cpp/uk/declarations/2000.htm.Google Scholar
  49. Wagner, R. V. (1988). Distinguishing between positive and negative approaches to peace. Journal of Social Issues, 44(2), 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wessells, M. G. (1996). A history of division 48 (peace psychology). In D. A. Dewsbury (Ed.), Unification through division: Histories of the Divisions of the American Psychological Association, 1 (pp. 265–298). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wessells, M., Schwebel, M., & Anderson, A. (2001). Psychologists making a difference in the public arena: Building cultures of peace. In D. J. Christie, R. V. Wagner, & D. A. Winter (Eds.), Peace, Conflict, and Violence: Peace Psychology for the 21st Century (pp. 350–372). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  52. White, R. K. (1988). Specifics in a positive approach to peace. Journal of Social Issues, 44, 191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Candice C. Carter 2010

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations