Advertisement

Private Properties, Seigniorial Tributes, and Jurisdictional Rents: The Income of the Queens of Portugal in the Late Middle Ages

Chapter
Part of the The New Middle Ages book series (TNMA)

Abstract

The Kingdom of Portugal emerged in the twelfth century as a result of the territorial and political development of a previous county of the Kingdom of Leon. Since then and until the last decade of the fifteenth century, there were thirteen queens-consorts in this realm. Most of them came from other kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula (table 11.1) and their marriages tended to be a result of war and peace negotiations between Portugal and a neighbor contender or ally. Some of the marriage contracts were settled in battlefields to avoid war; others were negotiated to assure an alliance against a mutual enemy. Even the union between Philippa of Lancaster (queen, 1387–1415) and João I of Portugal (king, 1383–1433), which might seem a singular case at first sight, fits entirely in this scenario. Philippa was the daughter of a famous character of the fourteenth-century history of England, John of Gaunt, who called himself “King of Castile and Leon,”1 and claimed the Castilian throne for himself and his wife, Constance of Castile. With this marriage, he wanted to grant the support of his Portuguese son-in-law to his pretensions while João I expected to enlarge the boundaries of his kingdom and to secure its autonomy.2

Keywords

Iberian Peninsula Jewish Community Fifteenth Century Peace Negotiation Marriage Contract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    “Johan par la grace de Dieu Roy de Castille et Leon de Tolide etc.” John of Gaunt’s Register, ed. Sydney Armitage-Smith, 2 vols., Camden Third Series, vol. 20 (London: Offices of the Society, 1911), vol. I, doc. 322, p. 138. “… Duque d Alancrasto, que era casado com dona Costança filha que ffora del Rey dom Pero, por cujo azo se o dito Duque chamava Rey de Castela ….” See also the Portuguese chronicler Fernão Lopes, Crónica de D. João I, ed. Anselmo Braamcamp Freire, 2 vols. (Oporto: Livraria Civilização, 1979), vol. II, p. 112.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. H. de Oliveira Marques, Portugal na crise dos séculos XIV e XV (Lisbon: Presença, 1987), p. 532.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fernão Lopes, Crónica de D. Fernando, ed. Salvador Dias Arnaut (Oporto: Livraria Civilização, 1979), pp. 159–60.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Maria Paula Marçai Lourenço, “O Domínio Senhorial da Casa das Rainhas (1642–1781): Património, Estado e Poder,” in Amar, Sentir e Viver a História. Estudos de Homenagem a Joaquim Veríssimo Senão, 2 vols. (Lisbon: Colibri, 1995), II: 985–1004, esp. p. 988.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    Francisco da Fonseca Benevides, Rainhas de Portugal. Estudo Histórico com muitos documentos, 2 vols. (Lisbon: Typographia Castro Irmão, 1878), vol. I, pp. 161–62.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    D. António Caetano de Sousa, Provas da História Genealógica da Casa Real Portuguesa, 2nd edn., 12 vols. (Coimbra: Atlântida, 1947), vol. II, no. 42, p. 275.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    “Testament of John, Duke of Lancaster”: “xxiii. Item. I leave to my very dear daughter, Philippa, Queen of Portugal, my second best circlet of gold and covered gold chalice.” Anil de Silva-Vigier, The Moste Highe Prince … John of Gaunt, 1340–1399 (Edinburgh-Cambridge-Durham: Pentland Press, 1992), p. 371.Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    Philippa of Lancaster took with her a very high figure of the English diplomacy as her chancellor, apart from the customary ladies-in-waiting. William J. Entwistle and Peter E. Russel, “A Rainha D. Felipa e a sua corte,” in Memórias e Comunicações—Congresso do Mundo Português, 19 vols. (Lisbon: Comissão Executiva dos Centenários, 1940), vol. II: 317–46, esp. p. 336.Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    Paulo Merêa, “Um problema filológico-jurídico: a palavra ‘arras,’” Novos Estudos de História do Direito (Barcelos: Ed. do Minho, 1937), pp. 139–49, esp. p. 139.Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    Frederico Francisco de la Figanière, Memorias das Rainhas de Portugal (D. Theresa—Santa Isabel) (Lisbon: Typographia Universal, 1859), p. xiii.Google Scholar
  11. 14.
    Isabel Beceiro Pita, “Los dominios de la familia real castellana (1250–1350),” Génesis medieval del Estado Moderno: Castilla y Navarra (1250–1370) (Valladolid: Ambito Editores, 1987), pp. 79–106, esp. p. 99.Google Scholar
  12. 15.
    J. P. Franco Monteiro, As Donatarias de Alenquer: História das Rainhas de Portugal e da sua casa e estado (Lisbon: M. Gomes Editor, 1893), pp. 1–3;Google Scholar
  13. Ruy d’Abreu Torres, “Rainhas, Casa das,” in Dicionário de História de Portugal, ed. Joel Serrão, 6 vols. (Oporto: Livraria Figueirinhas, 1981), vol. V: 230–32, esp. p. 230.Google Scholar
  14. 19.
    On this, see Maria Cristina Pimenta, D. Pedro I (Lisbon: Círculo de Leitores, 2003).Google Scholar
  15. 23.
    Manuela Santos Silva, “Óbidos Terra que foi da Rainha D. Filipa. O Senhorio de Óbidos de 1415 a 1428,” A Região de Óbidos na Época Medieval. Estudos (Caldas da Rainha: Património Histórico, 1994), pp. 85–110, esp. pp. 92–93.Google Scholar
  16. 25.
    Manuela Mendonça, D. João II. Um percurso humano e político nas origens da modernidade (Lisbon: Estampa, 1991) pp. 454–66.Google Scholar
  17. 26.
    Ivo Carneiro de Sousa, A Rainha D. Leonor (1458–1525). Poder, misericórdia, religiosidade e espiritualidade no Portugal do Renascimento (Lisbon: FCG/FCT, 2002), pp. 148–58.Google Scholar
  18. 28.
    J. L. Bermejo Cabrero, “Mayoría de Justicia del Rey y Jurisdicciones Señoriales en la Baja Edad Media Castellana,” Actas de las I Jornadas de Metodología Aplicada de las Ciencias Históricas. Vol. 2: Historia Medieval (Santiago de Compostela: Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 1975), pp. 207–215, esp. p. 207.Google Scholar
  19. 29.
    Eduardo Borges Nunes, ed., Ordenaçoens do Senhor Rey D. Afonso V, 5 vols. (Lisbon: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1984), II: 294–95.Google Scholar
  20. 30.
    Marcelo Caetano, História do Direito Português (1140–1495) (Lisbon: Verbo, 1981), pp. 330–31.Google Scholar
  21. 31.
    Alexandre Herculano, ed., Portugaliae Monumenta Historica. Leges et consuetudines, 2 vols. (Lisbon: Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, 1856), 1: 634–36;Google Scholar
  22. Luís Fernando de Carvalho Dias, ed., Forais Manuelinos do Reino de Portugal e do Algarve conforme o exemplar do Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo de Lisboa, 5 vols. (Beja: Soc. Editora Ala Esquerda, 1962), 3: 45–47. IAN/TT, Gaveta XX–12–41.Google Scholar
  23. 32.
    Manuela Santos Silva, “Alguns passos da acção do Conquistador na Estremadura litoral: o caso específico da região envolvente de Óbidos,” 2° Congresso Histórico de Guimarães “D. Afonso Henriques e a sua Época,” 6 vols. (Guimarães: Câmara Municipal de Guimarães/Universidade do Minho, 1997), 2: 109–16, esp. p. 113.Google Scholar
  24. 33.
    António Balcão Vicente, Carlos Guardado da Silva, Pedro Gomes Barbosa, and Pedro Marujo do Canto, O Foral Medieval da Vila de Torres Vedras 15 de Agosto de 1250 (Torres Vedras: Câmara Municipal de Torres Vedras-Cultura, 2001), pp. 10–11.Google Scholar
  25. 34.
    João José Alves Dias, Isabel M. R. Mendes Drumond Braga, and Paulo Drumond Braga, “A Conjuntura,” Portugal do Renascimento à crise dinástica, ed. João José Alves Dias (Lisbon: Presença, 1998), 689–760, esp. p. 714.Google Scholar
  26. 40.
    Ana Maria Seabra de Almeida Rodrigues, Torres Vedras. A vila e o termo nos finais da Idade Média (Lisbon: FCG/JNICT, 1995), p. 466.Google Scholar
  27. 43.
    Mário Viana, Os vinhedos medievais de Santarém (Cascais: Patrimonia, 1998), pp. 150–58.Google Scholar
  28. 49.
    J. M. Cordeiro de Sousa, ed., Fontes Medievais de História Toneana (Torres Vedras: Câmara Municipal, 1958), vol. 68, p. 78.Google Scholar
  29. 53.
    Ana Maria S. A. Rodrigues, “A sociedade urbana torriense e os privilegiados da coroa,” Espaço, gente e sociedade no Oeste: Estudos sobre Torres Vedras medieval (Cascais: Patrimonia, 1996), pp. 291–316, esp. p. 302.Google Scholar
  30. 58.
    Henrique da Gama Barros, História da administração pública em Portugal nos séculos XIII a XV, Torquato de Sousa Soares, ed., 11 vols. (Lisbon: Sá da Costa, 1945–54), 9: 285–89.Google Scholar
  31. 63.
    On them see Maria José Pimenta Ferro Tavares, Os Judeus em Portugal no século XV, 2 vols. (Lisbon: Universidade Nova-FCSH, 1982), 1: 159–98; andGoogle Scholar
  32. Maria Filomena Barros, A Comuna muçulmana de Lisboa: sécs. XIV e XV (Lisbon: Hugin, 1998), pp. 6–70.Google Scholar
  33. 64.
    Pedro Ferreira Gomes Barbosa, Grupos marginais nos documentos de Santa Maria de Alcobaça (séculos XII e XIII) (Lisbon: Faculdade de Letras, 1988), p. 11; and Rodrigues, Torres Vedras, p. 578.Google Scholar
  34. 70.
    Jorge Faro, Receitas e despesas da fazenda real de 1384 a 1481 (Subsídios documentais) (Lisbon: Instituto Nacional de Estatística, 1965), pp. 83–84.Google Scholar
  35. 71.
    On this dramatic event, see Francisco Bethencourt, “A Expulsão dos Judeus,” O Tempo de Vasco da Gama, Diogo Ramada Curto, ed. (Lisbon: CNCDP/Difel, 1998), pp. 271–80.Google Scholar
  36. 79.
    Manuela Santos Silva, Estruturas Urbanas e Administração concelhia: Óbidos Medieval (Cascais: Patrimonia, 1997), pp. 131–32.Google Scholar
  37. 80.
    IAN/TT, Ch. D. Fernando, L. 2, fol. 78, L. 3, fol. 38v. Ch. D.João I, L. 2, fol. 26. Ch. D. Afonso V, L. 33, fol. 38. Ch. D. João II, L. 11, fol. 13v. Estremadura, L. 10, fol. 293 v. A. H. de Oliveira Marques, ed., Chancelarias Portuguesas. D. Pedro I (1357–1367) (Lisbon: INIC/CEH, 1984), no. 13, p. 7. The same seems to have happened in two other towns belonging to the queen, Óbidos and Alenquer. Silva, Estruturas urbanas, pp. 132–34;Google Scholar
  38. João Pedro Ferro, Alenquer Medieval (Séculos XII–XV). Subsídios para o seu estudo (Cascais: Patrimonia, 1996), p. 258.Google Scholar
  39. 82.
    A. H. de Oliveira Marques, “A população portuguesa nos fins do século XIII,” Ensaios de História Medieval, 2nd ed. (Lisbon: Vega, 1980), pp. 195–220, esp. p. 6.Google Scholar
  40. 90.
    Silva, “Óbidos,” p. 91; Silva, Estruturas urbanas, pp. 136–37; Maria Helena da Cruz Coelho, “Relações de domínio no Portugal concelhio de meados de Quatrocentos,” Revista Portuguesa de História 35 (1990): 235–89, esp. p. 256; Rodrigues, Torres Vedras, p. 481.Google Scholar
  41. 91.
    Ana Maria S. A. Rodrigues, “Poderes concorrentes e seus agentes na Torres Vedras quatrocentista,” in Amar, Sentir e Viver a História. Estudos de Homenagem a Joaquim Veríssimo Senão, 2 vols. (Lisbon: Colibri, 1995), 1: 49–73, esp. pp. 63–64. The same seems to have happened in Alenquer, as is shown in the tables published by Ferro, Alenquer Medieval, pp. 58–67.Google Scholar
  42. 92.
    It has been shown that even some of the highest posts of the queens’ household were held by the king’s vassals. Rita Gomes, The Making of a Court Society. Kings and Nobles in hate Medieval Portugal (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 59–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Theresa Earenfight 2010

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations