Ideological Warfare



On August 15, 1945, Buchman met with the team gathered at Mackinac and announced the surrender of Japan. They had a quiet time and sang the Doxology. That night they met and “re-dedicated our lives to the battle for a new world. Frank’s guidance was, ‘There is just one war left—the war of ideas.’”


Good Road Movement Leader Movement Member House Parti Dutch Minister 
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  1. 29.
    Geoffrey Williamson, Inside Buchmanism: An Independent Inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament (London: Watts and Company, 1954), 167.Google Scholar
  2. 51.
    Peter Howard, Pickle Hill (London: Blandford Press, 1960).Google Scholar
  3. 52.
    A valuable analysis of the plays as theatre is Richard H. Palmer, “Moral Re-Armament Drama: Right Wing Theatre in America,” Theatre Journal 31:2 (May 1979), 172–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 66.
    H. Kenaston Twitchell, Regeneration in the The Unknown Story of a Decisive Answer to Communism in Postwar Europe (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981), 76–81.Google Scholar
  5. 68.
    Loudon Hamilton to FB, February 19, 1952, MRA 40. MRA was quite proud of its links to Konrad Adenauer, chancellor of West Germany from 1949 to 1963. He did not attend meetings at Caux or Mackinac, but he regularly sent warm greetings to the assemblies, which pleased Buchman deeply. The evangelist told the chancellor that he was “the man of the hour,” and then reported that the Germans at Mackinac celebrated Buchman’s birthday and saw MRA as the world’s answer. Buchman to Konrad Adenauer, June 6, 1959, MRA 6. Despite his apparent praise of Moral Re-Armament, however, neither Adenauer’s memoirs nor his biographers mention the movement. Konrad Adenauer, Memoirs 1945—1953 (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1965).Google Scholar
  6. 85.
    K.D. Beiden, Meeting Moral Re-Armament (London: Grosvenor Books, 1979), 60.Google Scholar
  7. 90.
    Frank Buchman, For All Men Everywhere (London: Oxford Group, 1954)Google Scholar
  8. 98.
    One historian of the Cold War claims that MRA was a front for the American government’s Psychological Strategy Board. Frances Stonor Saunders, The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters (New York: New Press, 1999), 151.Google Scholar
  9. 100.
    For a compilation, see the chapter on “Buchmanism” in William C. Irvine, Heresies Exposed (Neptune, NJ: Loizeaux Brothers, 1983).Google Scholar

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© Daniel Sack 2009

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