Advertisement

The Telecommunications Act of 1996 and the Overdevelopment of Gangsta Rap

  • Akilah N. Folami
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter explores how the Telecommunications Act of 1996 has contributed to the proliferation of gangsta rap on broadcast radio and has affected hip-hop by dissuading the voices of more “positive” rappers who might contest gangsta rap. Specifically, the Telecommunications Act of 1996 has contributed to stifling the discourse within the hip-hop community by increasing and solidifying corporate media conglomeration and control of the nation’s radio airwaves. Such media conglomeration has been instrumental in creating the dominant gangsta image that has become, for the most part, the de facto voice of contemporary hip-hop culture. Moreover, the Telecommunications Act has contributed to limiting access to the radio airwaves to those that would challenge gangsta rap and the resulting gangsta image, which is steeped in racial and sexist stereotypes.

Keywords

Black Woman Radio Station Black Panther Party Major Label Independent Label 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Aoki, Keith. “‘Foreign-ness’ & Asian American Identities: Yellowface, World War II, Propaganda, and Bifurcated Racial Stereotypes.” Asian Pacific American Law Journal 4, no. 1 (1996): 1–60.Google Scholar
  2. Bailey, Moya. “Dilemma.” Wiretap, May 24, 2004. http://www.alternet.org/wiretap/18760.
  3. Baker, Edwin C. “Media Concentration: Giving Up On Democracy.” Florida Law Review 54 (2002): 839–919.Google Scholar
  4. Baldwin, Davarian L. “Black Empires, White Desires: The Spatial Politics of Identity in the Age of Hip-Hop.” In That’s the Joint! The Hip-Hop Studies Reader, edited by Murray Forman and Mark Anthony Neal, 159–76. New York: Routledge, 2004.Google Scholar
  5. Bednarski, Anastasia. “From Diversity to Duplication Mega-Mergers and the Failure of the Marketplace Model under the Telecommunications Act of 1996.” Federal Communications Law Journal 55(2003): 237–93.Google Scholar
  6. Black Commentator. “There Needs to be a Movement: Political Action in the Hip Hop Era.” June 24, 2004. http://www.blackcommentator.com/96/96_cover_hip_hop.html.
  7. Boehlert, Eric, “Radio’s Big Bully,” Salon.com Arts & Entertainment, April 30, 2001, http://archive.salon.com/ent/feature/2001/04/3 0/clear_channel/print.html.
  8. Chang, Jeff. Can’t Stop Won’t Stop. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2005.Google Scholar
  9. CNN/Money. “Will Smith, Jay-Z Back Beauty Line,” CNN, March 18, 2005, http://money.cnn.com/2005/05/18/news/newsmakers/cosmetics.
  10. Coates, Ta-Nehisi. “Keepin It Real: Selling the Myth of Black Male Violence, Long Its Expiration Date.” Village Voice, June 4, 2003. http://www.villagevoice.com/news/0323,coates,44584,1.html.
  11. Collins, Patricia Hill. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. New York: Routledge, 2000.Google Scholar
  12. Collins, Ronald K. L., and David M. Skover. “Commerce and Communication.” Texas Law Review71 (1993): 697–746.Google Scholar
  13. Coombe, Rosemary J. “Objects of Property and Subjects of Politics: Intellectual Property Laws and Democratic Dialogue.” Texas Law Review 69 (1991): 1853–80.Google Scholar
  14. Coombe, Rosemary J. “Room for Manoeuver: Toward a Theory of Practice in Critical Legal Studies.” Law and Social inquiry 14 (1989): 69–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coombe, Rosemary J. “Tactics of Appropriation and the Politics of Recognition in Late Modern Democracies.” Political Theory 21 (1993): 411–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coombe, Rosemary, and Jonathan Cohen. “The Law and Late Modern Culture: Reflections on Between Facts and Norms from the Perspective of Critical Culture Legal Studies.” Denver University Law Review 76 (1999) 1029–55.Google Scholar
  17. D., Davey. “Hip Hop s Ultimate Battle: Race and the Politics of Divide and Conquer.” http://www.daveyd.com/articleultimatebattlerace.html.
  18. D., Davey. “KMEL Announces SummerJam Line Up.” Daveyd.com, November 18, 2008. http://www.daveyd.com/summerjam.html.
  19. Dawson, Michael C. “A Black Counterpublic?: Economic Earthquakes, Racial Agenda(s), and Black Politics.” The Black Public Sphere: A Public Culture Book, edited by The Black Public Sphere Collective, 199–228. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  20. Day, Wendy. “Radio.” Murder Dog, August 25, 2006. http://www.murderdog.corn/ august%5Frapcointelpro/radio.html.
  21. Dotinga, Randy. “‘Good Mornih’ (Your Town Here).” Wired News, August 6, 2002. http://www.wirEd.com/news/business/1,54037-0.html.
  22. Drale, Christina S. Communication Media in a Democratic Society, Communication Law and Policy 9 (2004): 213–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dyson, Michael Eric. “The Culture of Hip Hop.” In That’s the Joint! The Hip-Hop Studies Reader, edited by Murray Forman and Mark Anthony Neal, 61–68. New York: Routledge, 2004.Google Scholar
  24. Fiss, Owen. “Free Speech and Social Structure.” Iowa Law Review 71 (1986): 1405–25.Google Scholar
  25. Folami, Akilah. “Deliberative Democracy on Air: Reinvigorate Localism—Resuscitate Radio’s Subversive Past.” The Federal Communications Law Journal (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  26. Forman, Murray, and Mark Anthony Neal, eds. That’s the Joint! The Hip-Hop Studies Reader. New York: Routledge, 2004.Google Scholar
  27. Foucault, Michael. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977, edited by Colin Gordon. New York: Pantheon Books, 1980.Google Scholar
  28. Futureofmusic.org. “Radio Deregulation: Has It Served Citizens and Musicians?” November 18, 2008. http://www.mtureofmusic.org/irnages/FMCradiosmdy.pdf.
  29. Gregory, Eben. “Ludacris Lands Show On XM Satellite Radio.” Allhiphop.com, September 29, 2005. http://www.allhiphop.com/Hiphopnews/?ID=4887.
  30. Harris, Angela P. “Race and Essentialism in Feminist Legal Theory.” Stanford Law Review 42 (1990): 581–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hebdige, Dick. “Rap and Hip-Hop: The New York Connection.” In That’s the Joint! The Hip-Hop Studies Reader, edited by Murray Forman and Mark Anthony Neal, 223–32. New York: Routledge, 2004.Google Scholar
  32. Lears, T. J. “The Concept of Cultural Hegemony: Problems and Possibilities.” The American History Review 90 (1985): 567–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jadakiss. “Why.” Kiss of Death. June 22, 2004. CD.Google Scholar
  34. Jam Billy. “Pirate Fuckin’ Radio.” Hiphopslam.com, November 18, 2008. http://www.hiphopslam.com/scratch/pirate_fuckin_radio.html.
  35. Jay-Z. “Moment of Clarity”. The Black Album. November 13, 2003. CD.Google Scholar
  36. Judy, R. A. T. “On the Question of Nigga Authenticity.” In That’s the Joint! The Hip-Hop Studies Reader, edited by Murray Forman and Mark Anthony Neal, 105–18. New York: Routledge, 2004.Google Scholar
  37. Kelley, Robin D. G. “Looking for the “Real” Nigga: Social Scientists Construct the Ghetto.” In That’s the Joint! The Hip-Hop Studies Reader, edited by Murray Forman and Mark Anthony Neal, 119–38. New York: Routledge, 2004.Google Scholar
  38. Light, Alan. “About a Salary or Reality?—Rap’s Recurrent Conflict.” In That’s the Joint! The Hip-Hop Studies Reader, edited by Murray Forman and Mark Anthony Neal, 137–46. New York: Routledge, 2004.Google Scholar
  39. Lusane, Clarence. “Rap, Race, and Politics.” In That’s the Joint! The Hip-Hop Studies Reader, edited by Murray Forman and Mark Anthony Neal, 351–62. New York: Routledge, 2004.Google Scholar
  40. Madow, Michael. “Private Ownership of Public Image: Popular Culture and Publicity Rights.” California Law Review 81 (1993): 125–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Merry, Sally E. “Resistance and the Cultural Power of Law.” Law and Society Review 29 (1995): 11–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mezey, Naomi, and Mark C. Niles. “Screening the Law: Ideology and Law in American Popular Culmre.” Columbia Journal of Law and the Arts 28 (2005): 91–185.Google Scholar
  43. MSNBC. “Families Swap Race on ‘Black, White.’” February 27, 2006. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/11394595/.
  44. Neal, Mark Anthony. “Postindustrial Soul: Black Popular Music at the Crossroads.” In That’s the Joint! The Hip-Hop Studies Reader, edited by Murray Forman and Mark Anthony Neal, 363–88. New York: Routledge, 2004.Google Scholar
  45. Neal, Mark Anthony. “Rhythm and Bullshit? The Slow Decline of R&B., Part Three: Media Conglomeration, Label Consolidation and Payola.” Popmatters.com June 30, 2005. http://popmatters.com/music/features/050630-randb3.shtml.
  46. Ortner, Michael. “Serving a Different Master—The Decline of Diversity and the Public Interest in American Radio in the Wake of the Telecommunications Act of 1996.” Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy 22 (2000): 139–73.Google Scholar
  47. Phillips, Chuck. “Wiesenthal Center Denounces Ice Cube’s Album.” Los Angeles Times, November 2, 1991, sec. CA.Google Scholar
  48. Prindle, Gregory M. “No Competition: How Radio Consolidation Has Dismissed Diversity and Sacrificed Localism.” Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal 14 (2003): 279–325.Google Scholar
  49. Prometheus Radio. “About Us.” November 18, 2008. http://www.prometheusradio.org/about_us.
  50. Rainey, R. Randall, and William Rehg. “Marketplace of Ideas, the Public Interest, and Federal Regulation of the Electronic Media: Implications of Habermas’ Theory of Democracy.” Sou them California Law Review 69 (1996): 1923–87.Google Scholar
  51. Richburg, Chris, and Clarence Burke. “Oprah Responds to Hip Hop Criticism.” Allhiphop. com, May 12, 2006. http://www.allhiphop.com/hiphopnews/? ID=5667.
  52. Rose, Tricia. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  53. Samuels, David. “The Rap on Rap: The ‘Black Music’ That Isn’t Either.” In That’s the Joint! The Hip-Hop Studies Reader, edited by Murray Forman and Mark Anthony Neal, 147–54. New York: Routledge, 2004.Google Scholar
  54. Shawn Carter Scholarship Foundation Web site. “Company Goals.” November 18, 2007. http://scartersf.org/#.
  55. Sheridan, Jim, director. Get Rich or Die Tryin! DVD. New York: Paramount, 2005Google Scholar
  56. Strong, Nolan. “50 Cent Negotiating with Apple for Branded Line of Home Computers.” AllHipHop.com, June 19,2006. http://www.allhiphop.com/Hiphopnews/?ID=5798.
  57. Strong, Nolan. Jin Says Rap Career Is Over, Records “I Quit.’” Allhiphop.com, August 25, 2006. http://www.karazen.com/news/may05/j in_5_20.php.
  58. Stychin, Carl. “Identities, Sexualities, and the Postmodern Subject: An Analysis of Artistic Funding by the National Endowment for the Arts.” Cardozo Arts and Entertainment Law Journal 12 (1994): 79–132.Google Scholar
  59. Tardio, Andres. “E-40 Gets Down With MySpace.com.” Hiphopdx.com, February 21, 2006. http://www.hiphopdx.com/index/news/id.3905/p.all/print.true.
  60. Thomas, Chris. “Buckwild: Still Diggin.” AUhiphop.com, August 25, 2006. http://www.allhiphop.com/features/?ID=1434.
  61. Van Alstyne, Adam J. “Clear Control: An Antitrust Analysis Of Clear Channel’s Radio And Concert Empire.” Minnesota Law Review 88 (2004): 627–67.Google Scholar
  62. Varona, Anthony E. “Out of Thin Air: Using First Amendment Public Forum Analysis to Redeem American Broadcasting Regulation.” University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform 39 (2006): 149–98.Google Scholar
  63. Weisstuch, Liza. “Sexism in Rap Sparks Black Magazine to Say ‘Enough!’” Christian Science Monitor, January 12, 2005, http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0112/p11s01-almp.html.
  64. Wikipedia.org. “KMEL.” November 18, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KMEL.
  65. Wiley, Richard E. “Communications Law Overview: Recent Developments in Convergence, Competition and Consolidation.” PLI/Pat 597 (2000): 395–853.Google Scholar
  66. Willens, Kathy. “Black College Women Take Aim at Rappers.” USA Today, April 23, 2004. http://www.usatoday.com/life/music/news/2004-04-23-spelman-protest-rappers_x.htm.k.

Copyright information

© Lovalerie King and Richard Schur 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akilah N. Folami

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations