Zionists have long claimed that their movement was a reaction and a solution to anti-Semitism. They favor this explanation because it provides a convenient moral cover to their colonial project; as perennial victims of Gentile persecution, the Jews have an unqualified right to their own state. This explanation is scarcely plausible. Broadly, three responses to anti-Semitism had emerged during the nineteenth century: assimilation, revolution, and political Zionism. Political Zionism was the last to appear on the scene; and until the start of World War I, it was also by far the weakest of the three.
KeywordsZionist Movement Jewish Immigrant Jewish State Jewish Organization Covert Action
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