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Abstract

The Parliamentary option does not seem to have silenced the critics of the democratic deficits.

Keywords

Private Sector Civil Society Trade Union Regional Integration Mutual Trade 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 2.
    There is a growing literature on the topic. See, for instance, Diana Tussie and Mercedes Botto (eds.), El ALCA y las Cumbres de las Américas: ¿Una Nueva Pelación Público-Priva da? Buenos Aires, Editorial Biblos, 2003; and on the particular role played by scholars: Mercedes Botto (ed.), Saber y Politica en América Patina. El Uso del Conocimiento en las Negociaciones Comerciales Internacionales, Buenos Aires, Prometeo, 2007Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    As defined by Daphné Josselin and William Wallace: “Organizations 1) largely or entirely autonomous from central government funding and control: emanating from civil society, or from the market economy, or from political impulses beyond control and direction; 2) operating or participating in networks which extend across the boundaries or two or more states-thus engaging in ‘transnational’ relations, linking political systems, economies, societies; 3) acting in ways which affect political outcomes, either within one or more states or within international institutions—either purposefully or semi-purposefully, either as their primary objective or as one aspect of their activities.” (Daphné Josselin and William Wallace, “Non-state Actors in World Politics: a Framework,” in Daphné Josselin and William Wallace [eds.], Non-state Actors in World Politics, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2001, pp. 3–4).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 4.
    Margaret Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, Activists beyond Borders. Advocacy Networks in International Politics, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  4. Sydney Tarrow, The New Transnational Activism, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 12.
    Cited by Mario Lungo Uclés, El Salvador in the Eighties. Counterinsurgency and Revolution, Philadelphia, PA, Temple University Press, 1996, p. 136.Google Scholar
  6. 14.
    Ralph Lee Woodward, Jr., Central America. A Divided Nation, New York, Oxford University Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  7. 15.
    U.S. Democracy Promotion Programs in particular. See William Robinson, Transnational Conflicts. Central America, Social Change, and Globalization, London, Verso, 2003, p. 225.Google Scholar
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    Diego Achard, Manuel Flores Silva, LuisEduardo Gonzvález, Las Álites Argentinas y Brasileñas fiente al MERCOSUR, Buenos Aires, BID-INTAL, 1994, p. 114.Google Scholar
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    Kosario Domingo, Hector Pastori, Tabaré Vera, Comportamiento Estratégico de las Empresas Industriales fiente a la Apertura, Montevideo, Universidad de la Republica, Departamento de Economía, Documento no. 4, 1994.Google Scholar
  10. 32.
    Bernardo Kosacoff, Gabriel Bezchinsky, De la Sustitución de Importaciones a la Globalización. Las Empresas Transnacionales en la Industria Argentina, Buenos Aires, CEPAL, Documento de trabajo no. 52, 1993.Google Scholar
  11. 34.
    Wolfram F. Klein, El MERCOSUR. Empresarios y Sindicatos Frente a los Desafios del Proceso de Integración, Caracas, Editorial Nueva Sociedad, 2000.Google Scholar
  12. 35.
    Guillermo Ondarts, “Los Industriales Latinoamericaños y la Nueva Integración,” Intal 17, 1991, pp. 3–19.Google Scholar
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    Sílvia Helena Soares Schwab, José Waimer, Asociacién de Universidades Grupo de Montevideo. 15 años de Historia, Montevideo, AUGM, 2007, pp. 12–13.Google Scholar
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    Peter Katzenstein, “International Interdependence: Some Long-term Trends and Recent Change,” International Organization 29(4), 1975.Google Scholar
  15. 55.
    Alvaro de la Ossa, “Gran Caribe: Mecanisnios para Profundizar la Participación de los Actores Sociales,” pp.141–169 in Francine Jácome, Andrés Serbin (ed.), Sociedad Civil e Integration Regional en el Gran Caribe, Caracas, Nueva Sociedad, 1998.Google Scholar
  16. 56.
    See the official Web site: http://www.caricom.org/jsp/secretariat/legal_instruments/chartercivilsocietyresolutionjsp?menu=secretariat (accessed on April 28, 2008). Another example could be the Inter-American Dialogue. See, for instance, Jorge Domínguez, founding Dialogue member forecasting in 1997 a strengthening of an Inter-American civil society (Jorge Domínguez [ed.], The Future of Inter-American Relations, New York, Koutledge, 2000).Google Scholar

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© Olivier Dabène 2009

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  • Olivier Dabène

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