New Deal Conservation: A View from the Wilderness
In late 1934 and early 1935, just as many of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s (FDR) conservation initiatives were taking shape, several of the era’s most distinguished environmental activists—including Aldo Leopold, Bob Marshall, Benton MacKaye, and Robert Sterling Yard—came together to form the Wilderness Society, the first national organization dedicated to the creation and protection of a system of wilderness areas on America’s public lands. Over the previous decade and a half, the founders of the Wilderness Society had cobbled together what we know today as the modern wilderness idea, one that found a statutory home in the Wilderness Act of 1964, but the New Deal context was crucial to the coalescence of modern wilderness advocacy. The single most important facet of the Wilderness Society’s early advocacy was the group’s united opposition to the threats that roads and automobiles posed to the nation’s remaining wildlands. These pioneer wilderness advocates were “driven wild,” pushed into a new brand of preservationist advocacy by a growing love affair between Americans, their automobiles, and wild nature.1 Such threats to wilderness were pronounced throughout the interwar era, but they climaxed during the early New Deal as the federal government deployed an army of unemployed workers on the public lands, many of them charged with building roads, trails, and other modern improvements designed to open the public domain to motorized outdoor recreation.
KeywordsDust Depression Transportation Expense Posit
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