Advertisement

Political Access and Public Goods in the Muslim World

Chapter
  • 71 Downloads

Abstract

The cases of Turkey, Malaysia, and Indonesia have shown that states that both permit institutionalized participation and maintain effective capacity to provide public goods are better able to encourage Islamist groups to adopt peaceful strategies and eschew violent ones. In Malaysia, where both participation and capacity have been present, intervention by external forces did not occur. The experiences of Indonesia and Turkey shows how shortfalls in capacity empowered radical movements to take the law into their own hands, despite the presence of institutionalized channels for participation. This chapter seeks to apply this theory to several cases from the Arab and the larger Muslim world: Kuwait, Bahrain, Bangladesh, and Yemen.

Keywords

Public Good Political Participation Security Service Muslim World Muslim Brotherhood 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Byman, Daniel, and Green, Jerrold, Political Violence and Stability in the States of the Northern Persian Gulf (Arlington: Rand Institute, 1999a), 22.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Brown, Nathan. “Pushing toward Party Politics: Kuwait’s Islamic Constitution Movement.” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Paper no. 79, January 2007, 8.Google Scholar
  3. 19.
    Baakalini, Abdoo, Denoeux, Guiliana, and Springborg, Robert, Legislative Politics in the Arab World: The Resurgence of Democratic Institutions (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1999), 180.Google Scholar
  4. 22.
    Byman and Green, “The Enigma of Political Stability in the Persian Gulf Monarchies,” Middle East Review of International Affairs 3, no. 3 (September 1999b): 18, 32.Google Scholar
  5. 25.
    Bahry, Louay, “The Opposition in Bahrain: A Bellweather for the Gulf,” Middle East Policy 5, no. 2 (1997): 44–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 29.
    Peterson, J.E., “Bahrain’s First Steps toward Reform under Amir Hamad,” Asian Affair 33, no.2. (2002): 219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 32.
    Kaye, Dalia Dassa, Wehrey, Frederick, Grant, Audra, and Stahl, Dale, More Freedom, Less Terror? Liberalization and Political Violence in the Arab World (Arlington: Rand, 2008), xviii.Google Scholar
  8. 34.
    Terhalle, Maximillian, “Are the Shia Rising,” Middle East Policy Council (2007): 73, and Gause, Gregory, “Bahrain Parliamentary Election Results: 25 November and 2 December 2006,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 39 (2007): 171.Google Scholar
  9. 37.
    Lawson, Fred. “Repertoires of Contention in Contemporary Bahrain,” in Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach (Bloomington: Indiana University Press 2004), 98.Google Scholar
  10. 39.
    Yaphe, Judith, “Islamic Radicalism in the Arabian Peninsula: Growing Risks,” National Defense University Strategic Forum no. 67 (1996): 2, and Darwish, Adel, “Rebellion in Bahrain,” Middle East Review of International Affairs 1 no. 3 (1999): 2.Google Scholar
  11. 44.
    Ehteshami, Anoushiravan. “Reform from Above: The Politics of Participation in the Oil Monarchies,” International Affairs 79 no. 1 (2003): 61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 56.
    Jahan, Rounaq. “Bangladesh in 2002: Imperiled Democracy,” Asian Survey 43, no.1 (2003): 223,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. and Ganguly, Sumit, “The Rise of Islamist Militancy in Bangladesh,” United States Institute of Peace Special Report, no. 171, August 2006, 1.Google Scholar
  14. 59.
    Riaz, AIi, God Willing: The Politics of Islamism in Bangladesh (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2004), 45.Google Scholar
  15. 62.
    Ahsan, Aayadul, “Inside Militant Groups-1: Trained in Foreign Lands, They Spread Inland,” Daily Star, 5, no. 440 (August 21, 2005), 1.Google Scholar
  16. 66.
    Jahan, Rounaq, “Bangladesh in 2003: Vibrant Democracy or Destructive Politics,” Asian Survey 44, no. 1 (2004): 56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 76.
    Ahsan, Aayadul, “Inside the Militant Groups-6 Agency Advice for Ban on Them Ignored Since 2003,” Daily Star, 5, no. 445 (August 26, 2005), 1.Google Scholar
  18. 78.
    Riaz, Ali, “Bangladesh in 2004: The Politics of Vengeance and the Erosion of Democracy,” Asian Survey 45, no.1 (2005): 113, and Griswold, Eliza, “The Next Islamist Revolution?” New York Times, January 23, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 81.
    Riaz, Mi, Islamist Militancy in Bangladesh: A Complex Web (London: Routledge, 2008), 1.Google Scholar
  20. 89.
    Khan, Zillur, “Bangladesh in 1992: Dilemmas of Democratization,” Asian Survey 33, no.2 (1994): 150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 90.
    Shehabuddin, Elora, “Bangladesh in 1998: Democracy on the Ground,” Asian Survey 39, no.1 (1999): 187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 96.
    Hossian, Gollam, “Bangladesh in 1994: Democracy at Risk,” Asian Survey 35, no. 2 (1995): 175.Google Scholar
  23. 101.
    Schwedler, Jillian, “The Islah Party in Yemen: Political Opportunities and Coalition Building in a Transitional Polity,” in Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach, ed. Quintan Wiktorowicz (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2004), 214.Google Scholar
  24. 102.
    International Crisis Group, “Yemen: Coping with Terrorism and Violence in a Fragile State,” International Crisis Group Middle East Report, no. 8 (January 2003): 4.Google Scholar
  25. 105.
    Browers, Michaelle, “The Origins and Architects of Yemen’s Joint Meeting Parties,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 39 (2007): 565, and Johnsen, Gregory, “The Election Yemen Was Supposed to Have,” Middle East Report Online, October 3, 2006, 4, www.merip.org/mero/mero100306.htm (accessed on November 19, 2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 116.
    Carapico, Civil Society in Yemen: The Political Economy of Activism in Modern Arabia (London: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Julie Chernov Hwang 2009

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations