Developing Europe

  • Ernst G. Frankel


To help rebuild devastated Europe after the last World War, the major contributions were made by the Marshal Plan by which the U.S. underwrote large-scale aid to reconstruct Germany’s and other economies, and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), commonly called the World Bank, established at the Bretton Woods conference in 1946, which provided reconstruction financing to various allied countries in Europe such as Norway, etc. to help economic redevelopment after World War II.


Member Country Eastern European Country Common Currency Baltic State Capital Control 
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  1. 1.
    Siedentop, Larry, “Democracy in Europe”, Allan Lane, The Penguin Press, London, 2000.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stephen Holmes, “War between State and Society Plagues Russia”, letter to Editor of the Financial Times, December 4, 1998. Professor of Politics, Princeton University.Google Scholar

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© Ernst G. Frankel 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ernst G. Frankel

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