Introduction

  • Ernst G. Frankel

Abstract

Since World War II over 560 billion dollars has been provided as grants and more than $2.2 trillion dollars lent to developing countries to help their economic development. Today, these countries owe more than US$1.62 trillion; yet, many of them have experienced little development and, in fact, some have slipped economically backward and are probably worse off today than they were when they gained independence, particularly in Africa. There are obviously many examples of success, particularly in East and South East Asia.

Keywords

Europe Petroleum Income Marketing Assure 

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Copyright information

© Ernst G. Frankel 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ernst G. Frankel

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