Fascism, Anti-fascism, Communism, Anti-communism and Pacifism

  • David Drake
Part of the French Politics, Society and Culture Series book series (FPSC)

Abstract

The Wall Street Crash of October 1929 triggered the greatest crisis in the history of capitalism. And yet its impact was not felt in France until 1931/32, far later, for example, than in either Britain or Germany; indeed 1929 and 1930 were the optimum years of inter-war French prosperity. The year 1926 had seen the collapse of the government brought to power after the electoral success of Cartel des gauches, another anti-clerical, centre-left coalition. With the return of Poincaré, former president of the Republic, the dramatic slide in the value of the franc was halted and by 1928 it had been stabilised, albeit at one-fifth of its immediate post-war value. Although a severe blow for those in possession of fixed-rate loans, bonds and insurance policies, it also meant that, ‘[T]he capital that had previously gone abroad flooded the market. Those who yesterday had sought foreign currencies now wanted francs at any pricei’.1 The relatively low but stable franc also provoked a sharp increase in the number of foreign tourists visiting France.

Keywords

Europe Argentina Burial Defend Boris 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J. Rueff, Preface to Souvenirs … du gouverneur de la Banque de France Moreau, cited in J. Bouvier, ‘Les Maladies monétaires de l’entre-deux-guerres’, Politique d’aujourd’hui, November 1971, quoted in P. Bernard and H. Dubief, The Decline of the Third Republic, Cambridge University Press, 1988, p. 99.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    ‘In the 1890s France had been two-thirds rural; by 1930, 66 percent of the population lived in towns’, E. Weber, The Hollow Years: France in the 1930s, Sinclair Stevenson, 1995, p. 37.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    O. Dard, Les Années 30, Livre de Poche, 1999, p. 13.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Brendon, The Dark Valley: a Panorama of the 1930s, Jonathan Cape, 2000, p. 139.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    P. J. Larmour, The French Radical Party in the 1930s, Stanford, 1964, p. 7, quoted in Brendon, Dark Valley, p. 142.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. J. Larmour, The French Radical Party in the 1930s, Stanford, 1964, p. 7, quoted in Brendon, Dark Valley, p. 142.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    The main organisations calling to protest were: Action française, Les Jeunesses Patriotes, a nationalist organisation formed in 1926, Les Croix-de-Feu, Union nationale des combattants (the largest war veterans organisation), ARAC (see Chapter 3). For more details see S. Berstein, Le 6 Février 1936, Collection archives, Gallimard, 1975 esp. pp. 47–86.Google Scholar
  8. 14.
    For a detailed analysis of Münzenberg’s activities see S. Koch, Stalin, Willi Münzenberg and the Seduction of the Intellectuals, HarperCollins, 1995.Google Scholar
  9. 15.
    F. Field, Three French Writers and the Great War, Cambridge University Press, 1975, p. 72.Google Scholar
  10. 17.
    F. Field, British and French Writers of the First World War, Cambridge University Press, 1991, p. 201.Google Scholar
  11. 18.
    R. Rolland, Bon voisinage. Correspondance between Rolland and Edmond Privat. Letters and documents presented and annotated by P. Hirsch, Cahiers suisses Romain Rolland, No. 1, La Baconnière, 1977, quoted in Duchatelet, Romain Rolland tel qu’en lui-même, p. 294.Google Scholar
  12. 20.
    R. Rolland, Par la révolution la paix, Éditions Sociales, 1935, p. 56.Google Scholar
  13. 22.
    F. Furet, Le Passé d’une illusion, Robert Laffont/Calmann-Lévy, 1995, p. 256 (English translation: F. Furet, The Passing of an Illusion, University of Chicago Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  14. 23.
    ‘Un grand congrès contre la guerre’, text reproduced in N. Racine and L. Bodin, Le Parti communiste français pendant l’entre-deux-guerres, Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, 1982, p. 194.Google Scholar
  15. 30.
    A. Berman, quoted in Robert S. Thomberry, Les Écrits de Paul Nizan (1905–1940): Portrait d’une époque, Honoré Champion, 2001, p. 9.Google Scholar
  16. 31.
    M. Scriven, Paul Nizan: Communist Novelist, Macmillan Press, 1988, p. 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 33.
    For more on these various organisations, see for example Soucy, French Fascism, and A. Chebel d’Appollonia, L’Extréme droite en France de Maurras Le Pen, Editions Complexe, 1988, pp.158–224.Google Scholar
  18. 35.
    Quoted in J.-F. Sirinelli and P. Ory, Les Intellectuels en France, de l’affaire Dreyfus à nos jours, Armand Colin, 1986, p. 95.Google Scholar
  19. 37.
    In an article published in March 1934, Drieu asserted, ‘Fascism always started on the left’. See La Lutte des jeunes, 4 March 1934, quoted in J. Plumyène and R. Lasierra, Les Fascismes français 1923–1963, Éditions du Seuil, 1963, p. 96.Google Scholar
  20. 39.
    P. Drieu la Rochelle, La Lutte des jeunes, 4 March 1934, quoted in Plumyène and Lasierra, Les Fascismes français, p. 94.Google Scholar
  21. 50.
    W. Shirer, The Collapse of the Third Republic, Heinemann/Secker & Warburg, 1970, p. 229.Google Scholar
  22. 54.
    Roger Martin du Gard asked for his name to be added to the Jules Romains list. ‘But we are few. They [the right-wing signatories] are numerous and strong. The Dreyfus Affair is an eternal phenomenon’ (quoted in Winock, Le Siècle des intellectuels, p. 266). ‘Here as at the time of the Dreyfus Affair, we are witnessing a conflict between two mindsets [esprits], two conceptions of justice, political life and humanity’ (Yves Simon, La Campagne dÉthiopie et la pensée politique française, Desclée de Brouwer, 1936, pp. 9–10, quoted in Sirinelli, Intellectuels et passions françaises, p. 100).Google Scholar
  23. 56.
    See R. Schor, L’Antisémitisme en France pendant les années trente, Éditions Complexe, 1992, esp. pp. 169–81.Google Scholar
  24. 65.
    M. Toda, Henri Massis, La Table Ronde, 1987, p. 309, quoted in Sirinelli, Intellectuels et passions françaises, p. 109.Google Scholar
  25. 68.
    A. Malraux, La Politique, la culture, Gallimard (Collection folio essais), 1996, p. 121.Google Scholar
  26. 69.
    A. Gide, Retour de l’U.R.S.S., Gallimard, 1936.Google Scholar
  27. 71.
    J. Gorki, Les Communistes contre la révolution espagnole, Belfond, 1978, quoted inGoogle Scholar
  28. O. Todd, André Malraux: une vie, Gallimard, 2001, p. 242.Google Scholar
  29. 72.
    L. Trotsky, La Lutte ouvrière, 9 April 1937, quoted inGoogle Scholar
  30. J. Lacouture, Malraux: une vie dans le siècle 1901–1976, Éditions du Seuil (Collection Points Histoire), 1976, p. 207.Google Scholar
  31. 89.
    Quoted in M. Laval, Brasillach ou la trahison du clerc, Hachette, 1992, p. 89.Google Scholar
  32. 91.
    P. Andreu and F. Grover, Drieu la Rochelle, Hachette, 1979, p. 356. For an account of Drieu’s experiences in the PPF see pp. 351–98.Google Scholar
  33. 96.
    P. Nizan, Chronique de septembre, Gallimard, 1939, republished 1978.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© David Drake 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Drake
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Middlesex UniversityUK
  2. 2.Institut d’études européenesParis VIII UniversityFrance

Personalised recommendations