Abstract

At the end of the War, in 1945, the popular movement in the princely states found itself facing a dramatically changed political situation replete with democratic opportunities; but its infrastructure in many states was still embryonic, and in others the transformation of the praja mandals into legal and constitutionalist bodies had robbed the movement of much of its earlier fire and enthusiasm. As for the AISPC, it had become almost moribund.

Keywords

Migration Assure Petrol Tempo Defend 

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Notes

  1. 4.
    Chief Minister, Alwar, to PA, Alwar, 8 May 1942, PM, Jaipur, to PA, Jaipur, 9 September 1943, PM, Alwar, to PA, Jaipur, 5 March 1945, Home Minister, Jaipur, to PA, Jaipur, 4 April 1945, PM, Jaipur, to PA, Jaipur, 2 January 1947, and Vice-Presdt, State Council, Tonk, to PA, Jaipur, 25 January 1947, IOR R/2/150/123; IG Kotah’s confdl diary for period ending 9 December 1946, RSA, Kotah, Confdl file 39; fort. report on Rajputana for period ending 28 February 1947, IOR L/P&S/13/1442; and Shail Mayaram, ‘Speech, Silence, and the Making of Partition Violence in Mewat’, in Shahid Amin and Dipesh Chakrabarty (eds), Subaltern Studies: Writings on South Asian History and Society, Vol. 10 (Delhi, 1996), p. 131.Google Scholar
  2. 7.
    Quoted in Bal Raj Nayar, Minority Politics in the Punjab (Princeton, NJ., 1966), p. 91;Google Scholar
  3. and Sir Penderel Moon, Divide and Quit (Berkeley, 1962), p. 77.Google Scholar
  4. 16.
    Resolution of the Standing Committee of the COP, 29 January 1947, in C.H. Philips (ed.), The Evolution of India and Pakistan 1858–1947: Select Documents (London, 1962), pp. 435–6.Google Scholar
  5. 21.
    Maharaja of Baroda to V. Patel, 2 September 1947, cited in V.P. Menon, The Story of the Integration of the Indian States (Bombay: Orient Longmans, 1956), p. 399.Google Scholar
  6. 23.
    Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre, Freedom at Midnight (London, 1975), pp. 314–15.Google Scholar
  7. 29.
    Address to the 1st Sikh regiment, Patiala, 3 April 1947, and press statement by Tara Singh of 15 April 1947, as recorded in the diary of Ganda Singh, in Mushirul Hasan (ed.), India Partitioned: The Other Face of Freedom (New Delhi, 1995), pp. 31, 34–5.Google Scholar
  8. 40.
    Historians have only recently begun to probe the dark underside of the partition, and all these pioneering accounts focus on the provinces. Some of the more important are Swarna Aiyer, ‘“August Anarchy”: The Partition Massacres in Punjab, 1947’, in D.A. Low and Howard Brasted (eds), Freedom, Trauma, Continuities: Northern India and Independence (New Delhi, 1998), pp. 15–38; Paul Brass, ‘The Partition of India and Retributive Genocide in the Punjab, 1946–47: Means, Methods, and Purposes’, in Journal of Genocide Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1 (2003), pp. 71–101; Urvashi Butalia, ‘Community, State and Gender: On Women’s Agency During Partition’, in Economic and Political Weekly, 24 April 1993, pp. 12–24; Mushirul Hasan, ‘Partition: The Human Cost’, in History Today, Vol. 47, No. 9 (1997), pp. 47–53; Hasan, India Partitioned, esp. Vol. 1, pp. 15–42; Ayesha Jalal, ‘Nation, Reason and Religion: Punjab’s Role in the Partition of India’, in Economic and Political Weekly, 8 August 1998;Google Scholar
  9. Rita Menon and Ramla Bhasin, Borders and Boundaries: Women in India’s Partition (New Brunswick, N.J., 1998);Google Scholar
  10. and Gyanendra Pandey, Remembering Partition: Violence, Nationalism and History in India (Cambridge, 2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Lt.-Gen. Sir Francis Tuker, While Memory Serves (London, 1950), p. 489; and The Times, 10 August 1948.Google Scholar
  12. 67.
    For a sample of the range of opinion, see Andres Bjorn Hansen, Partition and Genocide: Manifestation of Violence in Punjab 1937–1947 (New Delhi, 2002), p. 193.Google Scholar
  13. 84.
    Rajendra Prasad to Patel 26 June 1948, Valmiki Choudhary (ed.), Dr Rajendra Prasad: Correspondence and Select Documents, Vol. 9 (New Delhi, 1988), p. 163.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ian Copland 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Copland
    • 1
  1. 1.Monash UniversityAustralia

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