In the early twentieth century, communal riots between Hindus and Muslims were far less frequent and far less sanguinary, per capita, in princely than in British India. Indeed the difference was so marked that it led some commentators to claim, somewhat excessively, that the states were ‘free’ from communalism. What magic or artifice allowed the major religious communities in the states to co-exist more or less peacefully at a time when collective violence between Hindus and Muslims was fast becoming the scourge of the provinces?


Communal Violence Muslim Population Sacred Site Princely State Collective Violence 
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© Ian Copland 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Copland
    • 1
  1. 1.Monash UniversityAustralia

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