Towards a Gallic Laager

  • Michael Broers


During the last months of the occupation, Dubois, the Director-General of Police in Florence, wrote to his superiors in Paris, in these terms:

It seems to me that we must always worry that French officials in the conquered and reunited territories fail to understand the true character of their peoples. … They leave themselves all the more exposed to such errors, in that the French have an excessive tendency to keep to themselves and, for their part, the peoples of the conquered and reunited territories, feeling ill at ease with their conquerors, seek them out as little as possible, and prefer to keep out of their way. From there, a sort of wall goes up between them, that a few Court functions, or cold visitations and stilted conversations do not suffice, in fostering frank exchanges between them.1

He was right. When, in 1811, the Ministry of Police-Generale asked for intelligence on ‘the inner reaches of high society, and the relationships and opinions of those who compose it’ in Rome, Norvins had to confess it would not be an easy job, mainly because of the estrangement between French and Italians, derived from their different cultural pastimes.


Public Sphere Italian Woman Great Family Cultural Imperialism Elite Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 3.
    Alison Patrick, ‘The Approach of the Revolutionary Officials to Social Problems’, Australian Journal of French Studies, 18 (1981) pp. 15–39.Google Scholar
  2. 31.
    Madame Récamier to Camille Jordan, 26 March 1813. Cited in Madame Lenormant, Madame Recamier et les amis de sa jeunesse (Paris, 1872) pp. 139–40.Google Scholar
  3. 39.
    Ferdinand Boyer, ‘Un oncle de Cavour: le Chevalier d’Auzers’, Revue de lInstitut Napoleon, 72 (1959) pp. 118–24.Google Scholar
  4. 59.
    G. Vaccarino, ‘Uomini e idee del Piemonte giacobino dopo Marengo’, I Giacobini Piemontesi (1794–1814), 2 vols (Rome, 1989), II, pp. 837–69, 867.Google Scholar
  5. 100.
    Ronald T. Ridley, The Eagle and the Spade: the Archaeology of Rome during the Napoleonic Era, 1809–1814 (Cambridge, 1992).Google Scholar
  6. 101.
    Luigi Zangheri, ‘Firenze et la Toscana nel periodo napoleonico’, in Villes et territoire pendant la periode napoleonienne: France et Italie: actes du colloque, Rome 3, 4 et 5 mai, 1984 (Rome, 1987) pp. 320–1.Google Scholar
  7. 107.
    C. Bona, LAmicizie: Societa e rinascita religiosa (1770–1830) (Turin, 1962).Google Scholar
  8. 121.
    Fred Cooper, ‘Industrial Man Goes to Africa’, in Men and Masculinities in Modem Africa, eds Lisa A. Lindsay and Stephen F. Miescher (Portsmouth, NH, 2003) pp. 128–37.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Michael Broers 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Broers
    • 1
  1. 1.OxfordUK

Personalised recommendations