Introduction: Never the Twain Shall Meet

  • Michael Broers

Abstract

This is a book about Europeans treating each other badly under the first Napoleonic empire, in roughly a third of what is modern-day Italy. It was an imperial relationship. To study France and Italy under Napoleon in this way seems sensible, and the definition of imperialism by George Lichtheim best encapsulates the forced, unnatural relationship that developed in Italy: ‘If a country is invaded by a stronger power and its political institutions are destroyed or remoulded, that country is under imperial “domination”, the corollary of which is “a primary division” between state and society.’1 The raison d’être of this oppressive condition was essentially ideological, and fits a wider pattern of imperialism. Frank Ninkovich believes of America, ‘… the ideology that underlay imperialism to be … actually much deeper and more durable in the end than the economic and geopolitical strategies of successive administrations’.2 Ronald Robinson, too, saw the limited applicability of economic motives to imperial expansion, even during its ‘classic’ phase.3 More often, the modernising or civilising mission fuelled the practical work of imperial officials, as in the Philippines under American rule,4 or in the missionary zeal that marked an earlier Spanish imperialism in the New World.5

Keywords

Europe Coherence Explosive Assure Assimilation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    G. Lichtheim, Imperialism (London, 1971) pp. 14, 10.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Frank Ninkovich, The United States and Imperialism (Oxford, 2001) pp. 248–9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ronald Robinson, ‘Imperial Theory and the Question of Imperialism after Empire’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, xii (1984).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fred Poole and Max Vanzi, Revolution in the Philippines: the United States in the Hall of Cracked Mirrors (New York, 1984).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nathan Wachtel, La vision des vaincus. Les indiens de Perou devant la Conquete espagnole, 1530–1570 (Paris, 1971).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Edward Said, Culture and Imperialism (London, 1994 edn). Idem, Orientalism. Western Conceptions of the Orient (London and New York, 1978).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cited in Jean Tulard, Napoleon ou le Mythe du Sauveur (Paris, 1977) p. 231.Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    N. Wachtel, ‘L’acculturation’, Faire de lhistoire, eds J. Le Goff and P. Nora (Paris, 1974) pp. 124–46, 125.Google Scholar
  9. 15.
    On the Rhineland: T.C.W. Blanning, The French Revolution in Germany: Occupation and Resistance in the Rhineland, 1792–1802 (Oxford, 1983). On the Netherlands: Simon Schama, Patriots and Liberators: Revolution in the Netherlands, 1780–1813 (New York, 1977). On Ireland: Marianne Elliott, Partners in Revolution: the United Irishmen and France (New Haven, 1982).Google Scholar
  10. 16.
    First and foremost: Linda Colley, Britons. Forging the Nation, 1707–1837 (New Haven and London, 1992).Google Scholar
  11. 17.
    U. Makdisi, ‘Ottoman Orientalism’, The American Historical Review, 107 (2002) pp. 768–96.Google Scholar
  12. 18.
    O. Lattimore, ‘The Frontier in History’, in idem, Studies in Frontier History. Collected Papers, 1928–1958 (London, 1962) pp. 469–93, 470.Google Scholar
  13. 19.
    J.G.A. Pocock, Barbarism and Religion, vol. II, Narratives of Civil Government, especially ‘Section II Voltaire: Neo-Classicist and Philosophe in the Enlightened World-Picture’, pp. 72–159.Google Scholar
  14. 21.
    James Axtell, The European and the Indian. Essays in the Ethnography of Colonial North America (Oxford, 1981) pp. 245–6.Google Scholar
  15. 22.
    Giuseppe Mazzini, ‘Fede e Avvenire’, Opere, ed. L. Salvatorelli (Milan, 1967) 2 vols, II, p. 229.Google Scholar
  16. 23.
    V. Gioberti, Del primato morale e civili degli italiani (Turin, 1932 edn) 3 vols, I, p. 94.Google Scholar
  17. 26.
    F. Furet, Revolutionary France 1770–1880 (English trans. Antonia Nevill, Oxford, 1992) p. ix.Google Scholar
  18. 27.
    J. Moulard, Le Comte Camille de Toumon, 3 vols (Paris, 1927) vol. I: La Jeunesse, Paris, Bayreuth, pp. 87–95.Google Scholar
  19. 28.
    I. Woloch, Napoleon and His Collaborators. The Making of a Dictatorship (New York and London, 2001).Google Scholar
  20. 29.
    Charles Durand, Les auditeurs au Conseil detat de 1803 a 1814 (Paris, 1958).Google Scholar
  21. 31.
    M. Cuaz, Le Nuove di Francia. Limmagine della rivoluzione francese nella stampa periodica italiana (1787–1795) (Turin, 1990).Google Scholar
  22. 32.
    Colin Lucas, ‘The First French Directory and the Rule of Law’, French Historical Studies, 10 (1977) pp. 231–60.Google Scholar
  23. 34.
    On Naples: Giuseppe Galasso, Napoli spagnola dopo Maniello: Politica, cultura, societa (Florence, 1982). Rosario Villari, La rivolta antispagnola a Napoli: le origini (1585–1647) (Bari, 1976). On Milan: Domenico Sella, Lo stato di Milano in eta spagnola (Turin, 1987). Domenico Sella and Carlo Capra, II Ducato di Milano dal 1535 al 1796 (Turin, 1984). For a good overview of Spanish rule in Italy as a whole: Hanlon, Early Modern Italy, pp. 62–75.Google Scholar
  24. 37.
    Timothy Dandelet, ‘Spanish Conquest and Colonization at the Center of the Old World: the Spanish Nation in Rome, 1555–1625’, Journal of Modem History, 69 (1997) pp. 479–511.Google Scholar
  25. 40.
    G. Lombardi (ed.), Le Guerre di sale. Rivolte e frontiere del Piemonte barocco, 3 vols (Milan, 1986). J. Nicolas, La Savoie au xviiie siecle: noblesse et bourgeois, 2 vols (Paris, 1978), vol. II, Inflexions au siecle des Lumieres, pp. 1093–114.Google Scholar
  26. 45.
    Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, vol. I (English trans. London, 1975) p. 33. This judgement is supported by recent local studies. Of particular relevance in this context is Pier Paolo Viazzo, Upland Communities. Environment, Population and Social Structure in the Alps since the Sixteenth Century (Cambridge, 1989).Google Scholar
  27. 46.
    F. Gunther von Eyck, Loyal Rebels. Andreas Hofer and the Tyrolean Uprising of 1809 (New York, 1986).Google Scholar
  28. 47.
    Alex Grab, ‘State Power, Brigandage and Rural Resistance in Napoleonic Italy’, European History Quarterly, 25 (1995) pp. 39–70. It should be noted that, although the epicentre of the 1809 revolt fell within the Kingdom of Italy, this same area in the Apennines west of Bologna had belonged, not to the Habsburgs, but to the Papal States, prior to Napoleonic rule.Google Scholar
  29. 49.
    E. Grendi, ‘Morfologia e dinamica della vita associativa urbana, Le confraternite a Genova fra I secoli xvi e xviii’, Atti della Societa Ligure di Storia Patria, 79 (1965) pp. 284–98.Google Scholar
  30. 54.
    David A. Bell, ‘Culture and Religion’, in Old Regime France, ed. William Doyle (Oxford, 2001) pp. 78–104, 90–1.Google Scholar
  31. 56.
    B. Dooley, ‘The Public Sphere’, in Early Modem Italy, ed. J.A. Marino (Oxford, 2002) pp. 209–28, 227. Dooley cites the Italian commentator Gregorio Leti.Google Scholar
  32. 57.
    Luciano Guerci, ‘Incredulita e Rigenerazione nella Lombardia del Triennio Repubblicano’, Rivista Storica Italiana, 60 (1998) pp. 49–120.Google Scholar
  33. 58.
    G. Hanlon, Early Modem Italy, 1550–1800 (London and Basingstoke, 2000) p. 303, who draws on Andrea Zorzi, ‘La politique criminelle en Italie (xiiiexviie)’, Crime, histoire et societes, 2 (1998) pp. 91–110.Google Scholar
  34. 59.
    Christopher M.S. Johns, Antonio Canova and the Politics of Patronage in Revolutionary and Napoleonic Europe (Berkeley, 1998), especially Chapters 3 and 4.Google Scholar
  35. 60.
    Giovanni Santini, Lo stato estense tra riforme e rivoluzione (Milan, 1987).Google Scholar
  36. 65.
    M. Rowe, ‘Between Empire and Home Town: Napoleonic rule on the Rhine, 1799–1814’, Historical Journal (forthcoming). More widely: M. Broers, ‘Policing Piedmont, 1789–1821’, Criminal Justice History, 17 (1994). X. Rousseau, ’ La revolution pénale, fondement national de l’état? Les mod’eles francais de justice dans la formation de la Belgique, des Pays-Bas et du Luxembourg (1780–1850)’, in Revolutions et Justice Pénale en Europe. Modeles Francais et Traditions Nationales 1780–1830, eds X. Rousseau, M-S. Dupont-Bouchat and C. Vael (Paris, 1999) pp. 285–307.Google Scholar
  37. 67.
    Henry Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition. An Historical Revision (London, 1997) p. 318. Kamen also notes that Italian observers disliked the Spanish model of the Inquisition, and were perpetually alert to supposed attempts by Philip II to foist it upon them. They disliked, especially, its anti-Semitism: pp. 308–9.Google Scholar
  38. 69.
    Sheila Fitzpatrick, ‘Signals from Below: Soviet Letters of Denunciation in the 1930s’, in Accusatory Practices, op. cit., pp. 85–120, at p. 120.Google Scholar
  39. 70.
    Colin Lucas, ‘The Theory and Practice of Denunciation in the French Revolution’, in Accusatory Practices, op. cit., pp. 22–39.Google Scholar
  40. 77.
    M. Ozouf, ‘Regeneration’, in A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution, eds F. Furet and M. Ozouf (Cambridge, Mass., 1989, English trans. Arthur Goldhammer) pp. 781–91, p. 788. See also idem, Lhomme regenere. Google Scholar
  41. 79.
    C. Botta, Histoire des peuples d7talie (4 vols, Brussels, 1825). Idem, Storia dItalia dal 1789 al 1814 (Paris, 1824; Milan, 1854).Google Scholar
  42. 80.
    G. Vaccarino, ‘Uomini e idee del Piemonte giacobino dopo Marengo’, I Giacobini Piemontesi (1794–1814), 2 vols (Rome, 1989), II, pp. 837–69, 867.Google Scholar
  43. 81.
    G. Roberti, ‘Il cittadino Ranza’, Miscellanea di storia italiana, vol. xxix (1892) pp. 1–187. C. Grandi, La Repubblica di Asti nel 1797 (Borgo, 1851).Google Scholar
  44. 82.
    D. Bell, ‘The Unbearable Lightness of Being French: Law, Republicanism and National Identity at the End of the Old Regime’, AHR, 106 (2001) pp. 1215–35, at pp. 1232–3.Google Scholar
  45. 83.
    A theme informing the seminal P. Ginsborg, A History of Contemporary Italy: Society and Politics, 1943–1988 (Harmondsworth, 1990) and central to idem, Family, Culture and Politics in Contemporary Italy (London, 1993).Google Scholar
  46. 84.
    This preoccupation runs through all Gramsci’s work, which he conceptualised as ‘the passive revolution’. For a lucid recent discussion: L. Riall, The Italian Risorgimento. State, Society and National Unification (London, 1994) pp. 1–5. The term is also central to Ernest Gellner’s seminal essay on the place of patronage in Mediterranean societies, in which the essence of a patronage system is that ‘it always belongs to some pays reel which is ambivalently conscious of not being the pays legal E. Gellner, ‘Patrons and Clients’, Patrons and Clients in Mediterranean Societies, eds E. Gellner and J. Waterbury (London, 1997) pp. 1–7, at p. 3.Google Scholar
  47. 85.
    J.A. Davis, ‘Introduction: Antonio Gramsci and Italy’s Passive Revolution’, in idem, ed. Gramsci and Italys Passive Revolution (London, 1979) pp. 11–66, at p. 14.Google Scholar
  48. 87.
    P. Ginsborg, ‘Explaining Italy’s Crisis’, in idem, pp. 19–39, at pp. 23, 25. In 1977, Alan Zuckerman simply took the centrality of patronage to Italian democracy as ‘read’: A. Zuckerman, ‘Clientist Politics in Italy’, in Gellner and Waterbury, op. dt., pp. 63–79.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Michael Broers 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Broers
    • 1
  1. 1.OxfordUK

Personalised recommendations