The Formation of ‘Parties’

  • Timothy Maxwell Gouldstone


The reactions to changes in society typified by Newman and Arnold’s differing ecclesiastical visions continued to exercise members of the Church of England as the century progressed. The immense significance of the Tractarian revival has meant that much of the subsequent history of the Church of England has been the story of ‘Anglo-Catholicism’ and the various reactions to this movement. This has even been seen as a normative framework by which the Church’s fortunes should be evaluated. Bertrand Russell once said jokingly that his own Whig family believed that history started with the Reform Act of 1832, and at times a similar attitude has been taken, in some cases unwittingly, by historians of the Church of England who see Keble’s ‘Assize Sermon’ of 1833 in a similar light. The rise of the constellation of divines who stood in the Tractarian and later Anglo-Catholic tradition has to some extent been used to cast what preceded it into the gloom of worldliness and lack of spiritual impact in a manner similar to some Protestant histories of the Reformation which until recently denigrated the spirituality and achievements of the pre-Reformation Church. Thus, as Frances Knight has observed, Anglo-Catholicism and its various forms have been interpreted as that which saved the Church of England for the nation in the century after 1833.1


Nineteenth Century Eighteenth Century Anglican Idealism Liberal Theology Talkative Person 
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  1. 10.
    Stephen, Sir James, ‘Letters of the Rt. Hon Sir James Stephen’ (1906), quoted in Ford K. Brown, Fathers of the Victorians, Cambridge: Cambridge UP (1961), 519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 14.
    John Morley, Nineteenth-Century Essays, ed. Stansky, P. (1970), 36, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, quoted in Turner, F.M. (1993d), 36.Google Scholar
  3. 23.
    Although Chadwick, O. (1966), I, 544 states that Dean Stanley had used it in about 1847, and W.C. Lake heard it used by A.H. Clough before that: W. Lake, Memorials of William Charles Lake, Dean of Durham, ed. K. Lake, 1901. See also Burns, A. (1999), p. 241 where Conybeare states that the best cement for a party was a common hatred of the opposition, but the ‘Broad Church’ divines lacked this.Google Scholar

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© Timothy Maxwell Gouldstone 2005

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  • Timothy Maxwell Gouldstone

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